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Explorer of Research #HEMBAD

Open road databases for lane tracking and vehicle detection

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on May 16, 2015

“free” for a researcher willing to test his own algorithms of lane tracking or vehicle detection.

Although it is quite easy to find webpages with huge databases with images of vehicles, it is not so easy to find sites where there are videos of the road ahead captured with a camera installed in a vehicle.

We finally found some, which include in some cases the original videos and the videos with the overimposed detection of vehicles, pedestrians and things like that.

Here you are the list with the links and a short description of the owner:

Thanks to the researchers that share their databases! You support the whole research community with your effort!!

Posted in Computer Vision, OpenCV, Project Related | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

The conversion and copy CvMat, Mat and between IplImage

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on May 15, 2015

The conversion and copy CvMat, Mat and between IplImage

In OpenCV Mat, CvMat and IplImage types can represent and display the image. IplImage derived from the CvMat, and CvMat that is derived from the CvArr CvArr -> CvMat -> IplImage, Mat type is a C ++ version of the matrix type (CvArr used as a function of the parameters, either passed or are CvMat IplImage, inside it is by CvMat deal with).

Mat type which focuses on computing, mathematics higher, OpenCV Mat ​​type of calculation is also optimized; while CvMat and IplImage type is more focused on the “image”, OpenCV on which the image manipulation (zoom, single extraction, image thresholding operation, etc.) were optimized.Many times the need for mutual conversion of three types, here a brief overview.

Conversion and copy
CvMat and between Mat

1 replication between CvMat,

  1. // Note: deep copy – separately allocated space, two independent
  2. CvMat* a;
  3. CvMat* b = cvCloneMat(a);   //copy a to b

2 Copy between Mat,

  1. // Note: shallow copy – not just copy the data to create a matrix head, data sharing (change a, b, c of the same effect will be on any one of the other two production)
  2. Mat a;
  3. Mat b = a; //a “copy” to b
  4. Mat c(a); //a “copy” to c
  5. // Note: deep copy
  6. Mat a;
  7. Mat b = a.clone(); //a copy to b
  8. Mat c;
  9. a.copyTo(c); //a copy to c

3, CvMat turn Mat

  1. // Use the constructor Mat: Mat :: Mat (const CvMat * m, bool copyData = false); copyData default is false
  2. CvMat* a;
  3. // Note: the following three consistent results, are shallow copy
  4. Mat b(a);   //a “copy” to b
  5. Mat b(a, false);    //a “copy” to b
  6. Mat b = a;  //a “copy” to b
  7. // Note: When the parameter copyData set to true, it was a deep copy (copying the entire image data)
  8. Mat b = Mat(a, true); //a copy to b

4, Mat turn CvMat

  1. // Note: shallow copy
  2. Mat a;
  3. CvMat b = a; //a “copy” to b
  4. // Note: deep copy
  5. Mat a;
  6. CvMat *b;
  7. CvMat temp = a;  // into CvMat type, instead of copying data
  8. CVCopy  (& temp, b);  // true copy data

Conversion and copy ================ ======================== IplImage above between the two ======== 1. Copy IplImage between this does not go into details, that is cvCopy use with cvCloneImage difference, Zhang posted online map:

2, IplImage turn Mat

  1. // Use the constructor Mat: Mat :: Mat (const IplImage * img, bool copyData = false); default is false copyData
  2. IplImage* srcImg = cvLoadImage(“Lena.jpg”);
  3. // Note: the following three consistent results, are shallow copy
  4. Mat M(srcImg);
  5. Mat M(srcImg, false);
  6. Mat M = srcImg;
  7. // Note: When the parameter copyData set to true, it was a deep copy (copying the entire image data)
  8. Mat M(srcImg, true);

3, Mat turn IplImage

  1. // Note: shallow copy – again, just to create an image first, but not to copy data
  2. Mat M;
  3. IplImage img = M;
  4. IplImage img = IplImage(M);

4, IplImage turn CvMat

  1. // Method a: cvGetMat function
  2. IplImage* img;
  3. CvMat temp;
  4. CvMat* mat = cvGetMat(img, &temp);  //深拷贝
  5. // Act II: cvConvert function
  6. CvMat *mat = cvCreateMat(img->height, img->width, CV_64FC3);  //注意height和width的顺序
  7. cvConvert (img, mat);     // a deep copy

5, CvMat turn IplImage

  1. // Method a: cvGetImage function
  2. CvMat M;
  3. IplImage* img = cvCreateImageHeader(M.size(), M.depth(), M.channels());
  4. cvGetImage (& M, img);     // a deep copy: The function returns img
  5. // Also be written as
  6. CvMat M;
  7. IplImage* img = cvGetImage(&M, cvCreateImageHeader(M.size(), M.depth(), M.channels()));
  8. // Act II: cvConvert function
  9. CvMat M;
  10. IplImage* img = cvCreateImage(M.size(), M.depth(), M.channels());
  11. cvConvert (& M, img);  // a deep copy


A final note:

1, Mat type is automatic memory management, no explicit release (of course, you can also call the manual release () method to force Mat matrix data release); and CvMat you need to call cvReleaseMat (& cvmat) to release, IplImage call cvReleaseImage (& iplimage) to release.
2, the establishment of CvMat matrix, the first parameter is the number of rows, the second parameter is the number of columns: CvMat * cvCreateMat (int rows, int cols, int type); 3, when establishing IplImage image, CvSize first parameter width, namely the number of columns; the second argument is the height of that line number: IplImage * cvCreateImage (CvSize size, int depth, int channels); CvSize CvSize (int width, int height); 4, IplImage internal buffer per line is by 4 byte alignment, CvMat not have this limitation.

Posted in OpenCV, OpenCV Tutorial | Tagged: , | Leave a Comment »

Setting Up Git on Windows in Four Easy Steps

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on May 6, 2015


Setting up Git can be intimidating, especially for those that are trying a version control system for the first time or moving from Subversion. It used to be the case that Git was a huge hassle to install and use on Windows. However, nowadays it’s super easy to use Git on Windows either through Git Bash, if you’re a fan of the command line, or if you prefer a graphical interface, through programs like TortoiseGit. Below we’ll show you how to set everything up and connect it with Assembla.

Table of Contents

  1. Download and Install Git for Windows
  2. Download and Install TortoiseGit (Optional but recommended for first timers)
  3. Generate SSH keys
  4. Link SSH key with Assembla


  1. Assembla Git repository – sign up if you haven’t already, Git and all our other project management tools are totally free for teams up to 3 people.
  2. A strong desire to install Git on Windows.
  3. That’s it, let’s go!

1. Download and Install Git for Windows

To get things started, you’ll need to download and install Git for Windows. If you’re unsure of which one to choose, just go with the full installer. After downloading, run the installer.


If you have PuTTY/TortoiseSVN installed, you may see this screen, otherwise just ignore this. Regardless, use OpenSSH to make things easy.
SSH Executable

From here, the process become quite streamlined. Simply follow the setup steps to ensure optimal settings. We recommend selecting “Use Git Bash only” as it provides an unmodified PATH.


After selecting next, we recommend chosing the option of “Checkout Windows-style, commit Unix-style line endings”. Select next once you have done this.




Download and Install TortoiseGit

TortoiseGit is a Windows Shell Interface to Git and based on TortoiseSVN.
This step is optional. If you are comfortable using the command line for interacting with Git, you do not need to install TortoiseGit.

Next up, let’s download and install TortoiseGit. Before you start the installation, please make sure that you choose the right installer for your PC, otherwise the setup will fail.




We’ll need to configure TortoiseGit – to do this, right click anywhere on your Desktop, select “TortoiseGit” and then “Settings.”

Find “Git” and then click on “Config” from the menu on the left. Then fill in your Name and Email, making sure to use the same email that you used to sign up for Assembla.

Don’t forget to click OK when you’re done.


Great, now TortoiseGit is all set!

Generate SSH keys

There’s two ways to generate SSH keys:
1. If you installed TortoiseGit, use the method directly below. 2. If you only installed Git on Windows and are not using TortiseGit, jump to the “Git Bash SSH Keys” section.

TortoiseGit SSH Keys

SSH creates a secure connection from your computer to Assembla, making sure that you are who you claim to be so that only authorized persons can commit to your repository. Assembla needs to know your public SSH key to make the secure connection, so let’s fire up Puttygen to generate an SSH key pair.

Start -> Programs -> TortoiseGit -> Puttygen

In Puttygen, first click on the “Generate” button.

Next, you’ll move your mouse around the big gray area under the progress bar to generate randomness for super security.

Once the key is generated, you should copy it onto your clipboard. You’ll use this later to authenticate with Assembla.

Afterwards, choose a memorable password and confirm it. Don’t forget your password!

Lastly, click on the “Save private key” button and save your private key somewhere you’ll remember.


Git Bash SSH Keys

If you did not install TortoiseGit, you’re at the right place! If you did install TortoiseGit, follow the steps above and skip this section.

  • Start up Git Bash: Start -> All Programs -> Git -> Git Bash
  • On the command prompt, type in the following command substituting with the email you used to sign up for Assembla.
  • When it asks you for the file, just hit Enter.
  • Please note that you should definitely enter a passphrase; when you type, nothing will show up. This is normal, don’t worry about it.

ssh-keygen -t rsa -C “”

Use Notepad to open up the .ssh/ file you just generated and copy the all of the contents of that file.

Link Your SSH key with Assembla

Open up your Assembla profile which is where you’ll paste the public key you just copied from the previous step.

Click “Add Key” after you’ve pasted the key into the box. You should see something like the following picture below. If so, congratulations, you’re done with this section!

Posted in Mixed | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Building VTK with Visual Studio 2013

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on April 30, 2015

Building VTK5 with Visual Studio


  1. Download VTK 5.10.1 the ( to unzip the file. (C: \ VTK-5.10.1)Http://Www.Vtk.Org/VTK/resources/software.Html#previous


  1. You want to specify the destination of the input destination and solution files of source code.
    • Where is the source code: C:\VTK-5.10.1
    • Where is build the binaries: C:\VTK-5.10.1\build
  2. Press the [Configure] to select the Visual Studio that is the target.
  3. It makes various settings.
    • BUILD_SHAREED_LIBS ☑ (check)
    • BUILD_TESTING ☐ (uncheck)
    • CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX C:\Program Files\VTK (or C:\Program Files (x86)\VTK)
  4. Press the [Add Entry] to add the following settings.
    Type: STRING
    Value: -gd

    * Debug string to be added to the file name of the build generated files of the (last).

  5. And output the solution file by pressing the [Generate].


  1. Start Visual Studio with administrative privileges VTK solution file (C: \ VTK-5.10.1 \ build \ VTK.sln) to open.
    (If you do not start with administrator privileges Visual Studio INSTALL to fail.)
  2. It wants to modify the source code.
    • vtkOStreamWrapper.cxx
      60 line

      vtkOStreamWrapper& vtkOStreamWrapper::operator << (ostream& a) {
        this->ostr << (void *)&a;
        return *this;
    • vtkEnSightGoldBinaryReader.cxx
      3925 line

      if (this->IFile->read(result, 80).fail())

      3944 line

      if (this->IFile->read(dummy, 8).fail())

      4001 line

      if (this->IFile->read(dummy, 4).fail())

      4008 line

      if (this->IFile->read((char*)result, sizeof(int)).fail())

      4025 line

      if (this->IFile->read(dummy, 4).fail())

      4048 line

      if (this->IFile->read(dummy, 4).fail())

      4055 line

      if (this->IFile->read((char*)result, sizeof(int)*numInts).fail())

      4072 line

      if (this->IFile->read(dummy, 4).fail())

      4095 line

      if (this->IFile->read(dummy, 4).fail())

      4102 line

      if (this->IFile->read((char*)result, sizeof(float)*numFloats).fail())

      4119 line

      if (this->IFile->read(dummy, 4).fail())
    • vtkConvexHull2D.cxx
      31 lines

      #include <algorithm>
    • vtkAdjacencyMatrixToEdgeTable.cxx
      31 lines

      #include <algorithm>
    • vtkNormalizeMatrixVectors.cxx
      30 Line

      #include <algorithm>
    • vtkPairwiseExtractHistogram2D.cxx
      39 line

      #include <algorithm>
    • vtkControlPointsItem.cxx
      35 lines

      #include <algorithm>
    • vtkPiecewisePointHandleItem.cxx
      31 lines

      #include <algorithm>
    • vtkParallelCoordinatesRepresentation.cxx
      83 line

      #include <algorithm>
  1. It wants to build the VTK. (ALL_BUILD)
    1. The configuration of the solution (Debug, Release) set the.
    2. Choose the ALL_BUILD project from Solution Explorer.
    3. [Build]> to build VTK Press [Build Solution].
  2. It wants to install the VTK. (INSTALL)
    1. Choose the INSTALL project from Solution Explorer.
    2. [Build]> [projects only]> to install the VTK Press [INSTALL only the Build menu.CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX necessary files are copied to the specified output destination.

Environment Variable

  1. Environment variable VTK_ROOT create a VTK of path: Set the (C \ Program Files \ VTK).
  2. Environment variable Path I add a% VTK_ROOT% \ bin; to.

Building VTK6 with Visual Studio


  1. Download VTK 6.1.0 the ( to unzip the file. (C: \ VTK-6.1.0)Http://Www.Vtk.Org/VTK/resources/software.Html#latestcand


  1. You want to specify the destination of the input destination and solution files of source code.
    • Where is the source code: C:\VTK-6.1.0
    • Where is build the binaries: C:\VTK-6.1.0\build
  2. Press the [Configure] to select the Visual Studio that is the target.
  3. It makes various settings.
    • BUILD_SHAREED_LIBS ☑ (check)
    • BUILD_TESTING ☐ (uncheck)
    • CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX C:\Program Files\VTK (or C:\Program Files (x86)\VTK)
  4. Press the [Add Entry] to add the following settings.
    Type: STRING
    Value: -gd

    * Debug string to be added to the file name of the build generated files of the (last).

  5. And output the solution file by pressing the [Generate].


  1. Start Visual Studio with administrative privileges VTK solution file (C: \ VTK-6.1.0 \ build \ VTK.sln) to open.
    (If you do not start with administrator privileges Visual Studio INSTALL to fail.)
  2. It wants to build the VTK. (ALL_BUILD)
    1. The configuration of the solution (Debug, Release) set the.
    2. Choose the ALL_BUILD project from Solution Explorer.
    3. [Build]> to build VTK Press [Build Solution].
  3. It wants to install the VTK. (INSTALL)
    1. Choose the INSTALL project from Solution Explorer.
    2. [Build]> [projects only]> to install the VTK Press [INSTALL only the Build menu.CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX necessary files are copied to the specified output destination.

Environment Variable

  1. Environment variable VTK_DIR create a VTK of path: Set the (C \ Program Files \ VTK).
  2. Environment variable Path I add a% VTK_DIR% \ bin; to.

Building VTK6 + Qt5 with Visual Studio


  1. Download VTK 6.1.0 the ( to unzip the file. (C: \ VTK-6.1.0)Http://Www.Vtk.Org/VTK/resources/software.Html#latestcand
  2. Qt 5.4.0 with OpenGLをダウンロード、インストールする。(C:\Qt)

    • Qt 5.4.0 for Windows 32-bit (VS 2013, OpenGL, 694 MB)
    • Qt 5.4.0 for Windows 64-bit (VS 2013, OpenGL, 709 MB)


  1. You want to specify the destination of the input destination and solution files of source code.
    • Where is the source code: C:\VTK-6.1.0
    • Where is build the binaries: C:\VTK-6.1.0\build
  2. Press the [Configure] to select the Visual Studio that is the target.
  3. It makes various settings.
    (Grouped and helpful to put a check to Advanced.) * Win32 is Msvc2013_opengl , x64 is msvc2013_64_openglspecified in. Ungrouped Entries

    • Qt5Core_DIR C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/cmake/Qt5Core
    • Qt5Designer_DIR C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/cmake/Qt5Designer
    • Qt5Gui_DIR C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/cmake/Qt5Gui
    • Qt5Network_DIR C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/cmake/Qt5Network
    • Qt5OpenGL_DIR C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/cmake/Qt5OpenGL
    • Qt5Sql_DIR C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/cmake/Qt5Sql
    • Qt5WebKit_DIR C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/cmake/Qt5WebKit
    • Qt5WebKitWidgets_DIRC:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/cmake/Qt5WebKitWidgets
    • Qt5Widgets_DIR C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/cmake/Qt5Widgets
    • Qt5Xml_DIR C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/cmake/Qt5Xml


    • BUILD_SHAREED_LIBS ☑ (check)
    • BUILD_TESTING ☐ (uncheck)


    • CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX C:\Program Files\VTK (or C:\Program Files (x86)\VTK)


    • Module_vtkGUISupportQt ☑ (check)
    • Module_vtkGUISupportQtOpenGL ☑ (check)
    • Module_vtkGUISupportQtSQL ☑ (check)
    • Module_vtkGUISupportQtWebkit ☑ (check)
    • Module_vtkRenderingQt ☑ (check)
    • Module_vtkViewsQt ☑ (check)


    • OPENGL_gl_LIBRARY opengl
    • OPENGL_glu_LIBRARY glu32


    • QT_MKSPECS_DIR C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/mkspecs/win32-msvc2013
    • QT_QMAKE_EXECUTABLE C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/bin/qmake.exe
    • QT_QTCORE_LIBRARY_DEBUG C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/Qt5Cored.lib
    • QT_QTCORE_LIBRARY_DEBUG C:/Qt/Qt5.4.0/5.4/msvc2013_64_opengl/lib/Qt5Core.lib


    • VTK_Group_Qt ☑ (check)
  4. Press the [Add Entry] to add the following settings.
    Type: PATH
    Value: C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\8.1\Lib\winv6.3\um\x64
    (or C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\8.1\Lib\winv6.3\um\x86)

    * Windows Kits path if Visual Studio 2013 8.1 \ Lib \ Winv6.3, if Visual Studio 2012 8.0 I specify the \ Lib \ Win8.

    Type: STRING
    Value: -gd

    * Debug string to be added to the file name of the build generated files of the (last).

  5. And output the solution file by pressing the [Generate].


  1. Start Visual Studio with administrative privileges VTK solution file (C: \ VTK-6.1.0 \ build \ VTK.sln) to open.
    (If you do not start with administrator privileges Visual Studio INSTALL to fail.)
  2. It wants to build the VTK. (ALL_BUILD)
    1. The configuration of the solution (Debug, Release) set the.
    2. Choose the ALL_BUILD project from Solution Explorer.
    3. [Build]> to build VTK Press [Build Solution].
  3. It wants to install the VTK. (INSTALL)
    1. Choose the INSTALL project from Solution Explorer.
    2. [Build]> [projects only]> to install the VTK Press [INSTALL only the Build menu.CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX necessary files are copied to the specified output destination.

Environment Variable

  1. Environment variable VTK_DIR create a VTK of path: Set the (C \ Program Files \ VTK).
  2. Environment variable QTDIR by creating a Qt of the path (C: \ Qt \ Qt5.4.0 \ 5.4 \ msvc2013_64_opengl \ (or C: \ Qt \ Qt5.4.0 \ 5.4 \ msvc2013_opengl \)) to set.
  3. Environment variable Path in;% VTK_DIR% \ bin;% I add a QTDIR% \ bin.

Posted in CLOUD, Computer Languages, Computer Softwares, Computer Vision, Computing Technology, CUDA, GPU (CUDA), OpenCV | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

PLz Save the internet. Tell TRAI we need network neutrality.

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on April 13, 2015

Save the internet. Tell TRAI we need network neutrality.

Respond to TRAI now or edit answers

This page was created as a collection of the best arguments that may be made in favour of net neutrality, in the framework of the TRAI consultation paper.

Why see this

The purpose is to assist supporters of strong net neutrality in articulating their own views on the matter in a legally precise manner, in order to submit a response to the TRAI (at before the deadline on 24 April 2015.

Copy Following and Emails
should be sent to
Please bcc us at

for Gmail click 

To the Chairman, TRAI

Thank you for giving me this opportunity to share my views on the consultation paper published by TRAI on March 27, 2015 titled “Regulatory Framework For Over-the-Top (OTT) Services”. I am worried that this consultation paper makes sweeping assumptions about the Internet, and does not take a neutral and balanced view of the subject of Internet Licensing and Net Neutrality. Any public consultation must be approached in a neutral manner by the regulator, so that people can form an informed opinion.

I strongly support an open internet, for which I believe it is critical to uphold net neutrality and reject any moves towards licensing of Internet applications and Web services.

I urge TRAI to commit to outlining measures to protect and advance net neutrality for all Indians. Net neutrality requires that the Internet be maintained as an open platform, on which network providers treat all content, applications and services equally, without discrimination. The TRAI must give importance to safeguarding the interests of our country’s citizens and the national objective of Digital India and Make In India, over claims made by some corporate interests.

I request that my response be published on the TRAI website alongside other comments filed, in line with past practice regarding public consultations. I urge that TRAI issue a specific response to user submissions after examining the concerns raised by them, and hold open house discussions across India, accessible to users and startups before making any recommendations.

Question 1: Is it too early to establish a regulatory framework for Internet/OTT services, since internet penetration is still evolving, access speeds are generally low and there is limited coverage of high-speed broadband in the country? Or, should some beginning be made now with a regulatory framework that could be adapted to changes in the future? Please comment with justifications.

No new regulatory framework in the telecom sector is required for Internet services and apps – and no such regulation should come into effect in future either.

This question incorrectly presumes that regulation of the Internet is absent and there is a need to create it. Additionally, the technical language of “Over-the-Top” applications used in the consultation paper fails to convey that it is truly referring to the online services and applications which make today’s Internet which we all use; Facebook, Ola, Zomato, Paytm, WhatsApp, Zoho and Skype etc. The Internet is already subject to existing law in India – any extra regulatory or licensing regime will only be detrimental to the customer and to Indian firms developing online services and apps.

Under the current regulatory framework, users can access the internet-based services and apps either for a low fee or for free where the application owners make money by selling advertisements based on user data. With additional regulations and licenses, it will make it expensive for these services to reach out to their customers eventually leading to higher prices and undesirable levels of advertising – which is against the public interest and counterproductive.

It appears that the telecom companies are shifting goalposts. Many telecom companies have earlier argued in the consultation paper floated by TRAI on mobile value added services (MVAS) that it was not necessary to regulate these value added services. They said MVAS are already governed by general laws under the Indian legal system and comply with the security interests as they operate on the networks of legitimate telecom license holders. Internet platforms also are regulated and governed by general laws in addition to specialised laws such as the Information Technology Act, and the same treatment should be extended to them as well.

As TRAI said previously in its recommendations after consulting on MVAS regulation:

“The Authority preferred least intrusive and minimal regulatory framework and thus no separate category of licence for value added services is envisaged. After second round of consultations, the Authority is also not favoring registration of Value Added Service Providers (VASPs) or content aggregators under the “Other Service Provider (OSP)” category.”

“Content shall be subject to relevant content regulation and compliance of prevailing copyrights including digital management rights and other laws on the subject (para 3.12.2). The content is subjected to content regulation/ guidelines of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Information Technology Act, 2000, Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995, Indian Copyright Act etc., as amended from time to time. The content regulation shall be as per law in force from time to time. There should be consistency in the treatment of content across all kinds of media including print, digital/multimedia to avoid any discrimination. (para 3.13.3):”

Imposing a licensing and regulation regime carry significant risks of destroying innovation. Launching new services and features will take more time and will make it difficult for new startups with low cash reserves to enter the market. It will basically ring the death knell for the country’s fast-growing digital media sector.

Question 2: Should the Internet/OTT players offering communication services (voice, messaging and video call services through applications (resident either in the country or outside) be brought under the licensing regime? Please comment with justifications.

Firstly, there is no need for licensing of internet based communication service providers. To suggest such a move further points towards the TRAI consultation being tilted in favour of telecom operators.

Secondly, fundamentally both Internet-based communication services and non-communication services are the same. They sit on top of the network provided by telecom operators. And the spectrum that telecom operators utilise to offer this network on pipe is already licensed, hence there is no need for additional licensing.

This issue also needs to be looked at from another perspective. Many non-communication services on the Internet also offer real-time chat or video interaction features for the benefit of customers, which will be affected by bringing such services under a licensing regime.

The extent of innovation we have witnessed over the years has been greatly aided by the low cost of entry. Any form of regulation or licensing will increase the entry cost, thereby hindering innovation and equal opportunity to startups to establish themselves in the market. Behind every Zoho, WhatsApp and Skype there are numerous failures. Licensing will essentially increase the cost and likelihood of failure – and greatly discourage innovation.

Question 3: Is the growth of Internet/OTT impacting the traditional revenue stream of Telecom operators/Telecom operators? If so, is the increase in data revenues of the Telecom Operators sufficient to compensate for this impact? Please comment with reasons.

There is absolutely no evidence to suggest that VoIP services like Hike or Skype are cannibalising voice revenues of telecom operators. In fact, heads of more than one Indian telecom operator have clearly stated the same over the past few months. For example, Airtel India CEO Gopal Vittal had said during the company’s earnings conference call, earlier this year, that there’s no evidence of VoIP cannibalisation of voice services. Last year, Idea Cellular MD Himanshu Kapania had also said that OTT apps like Viber have had some impact on their International calling business, but on regular voice calls, there was no impact.

We also need to remember that data revenues also fall under the traditional revenue streams category as per the Unified Access License Agreement ( So, it is factually incorrect to say that increase in data revenues will affect traditional revenue streams.

A Morgan Stanley report on the Indian telecom industry from last year mentions that data revenues is likely to contribute about 23% of telecom operators’ overall revenues over the next two years. A study jointly done by AT Kearney and Google estimated that telecom companies will earn an additional $8 billion in revenues by 2017 due to the proliferation of data and data-based services.

Question 4: Should the Internet/OTT players pay for use of the Telecom Operators network over and above data charges paid by consumers? If yes, what pricing options can be adopted? Could such options include prices based on bandwidth consumption? Can prices be used as a means of product/service differentiation? Please comment with justifications.

Internet-based services and apps don’t pay for telecom operators for using the network, and it should remain the same going forward. Forcing Internet-based services to pay extra for using a particular network negatively impact consumers and harm the Indian digital ecosystem. As mentioned in the above answer, data revenues of Indian telecom operators is already on an upswing and is slated to increase rapidly over the next few years, hence the argument for creating a new revenue source is not justified.

Charging users extra for specific apps or services will overburden them, which in turn will lead to them not using the services at all. It is also akin to breaking up the Internet into pieces, which is fundamentally against what Net Neutrality stands for. Also, the Internet depends on interconnectivity and the users being able to have seamless experience – differential pricing will destroy the very basic tenets of the Internet.

Question 5: Do you agree that imbalances exist in the regulatory environment in the operation of Internet/OTT players? If so, what should be the framework to address these issues? How can the prevailing laws and regulations be applied to Internet/OTT players (who operate in the virtual world) and compliance enforced? What could be the impact on the economy? Please comment with justifications.

There is no regulatory imbalance in the environment in which the internet services and applications operate. In fact, the word “regulatory imbalance” is incorrect here. Telecom operators holds licenses to spectrum which is a public resource. Internet services and applications don’t have to acquire licenses. Moreover, there is a clear distinction between services provided by telecom operators and internet platforms—so no additional regulation is required.

Also, internet services and applications are already well-covered under the Information Technology Act, 2000 and Indian Penal Code, 1860. More importantly, internet services are intermediaries that allow a communication system for their users—and intermediaries cannot be held responsible for the acts of their users as per Section 79 of the IT Act, 2000. Our Supreme Court has recently ruled on this area in the Shreya Singhal versus Union of India case, holding that Internet content is protected by our Constitution’s right to free expression and setting out the acceptable limits for government regulation.

Question 6: How should the security concerns be addressed with regard to OTT players providing communication services? What security conditions such as maintaining data records, logs etc. need to be mandated for such OTT players? And, how can compliance with these conditions be ensured if the applications of such OTT players reside outside the country? Please comment with justifications.

The internet services and apps are well-covered under the existing laws and regulations. These include the Code of Criminal Procedure, Indian Telegraph Act, Indian Telegraph Rules, and the Information Technology Act and its different rules pertaining to intermediaries and interception. These different regulations allow the Indian government and law enforcement agencies to access the data stored by internet platforms when deemed legally necessary. Any additional regulations carry grave risk of breaching user privacy and would also require constitutional review – especially since the Government is still working on a proposed Privacy Bill.

The government and courts also have the power to block access to websites on the grounds of national security and public order. It has taken similar steps in the past and has been widely reported by the media. The transparency reports periodically published by major internet companies suggests Indian government routinely requests for user data and blocking of user accounts. Between July 2014 and December 2014, Indian authorities had 5,473 requests for data, covering 7,281 user accounts from Facebook and the company had a compliance rate of 44.69%. Google had a compliance rate of 61% with respect to the requests made by different government agencies across India.

Question 7: How should the OTT players offering app services ensure security, safety and privacy of the consumer? How should they ensure protection of consumer interest? Please comment with justifications.

Although user privacy and security is of paramount importance, additional regulation carries the inherent risk of breaching user privacy which is not in the consumer’s interest. The Information Technology Act, 2000 already addresses the security concerns of the user. But more importantly, any criminal act committed using these platforms can be tried under the Indian Penal Code. So, there is no need to burden the internet platforms with additional regulations.

Also, it is worth noting that many telecom companies in India have not made information publicly available as to whether and how they comply with regulations that guarantee security, privacy and safety of the customer. TRAI’s current paper fails to articulate why the internet services and apps should be brought under similar regulations.

Question 8:

In what manner can the proposals for a regulatory framework for OTTs in India draw from those of ETNO, referred to in para 4.23 or the best practices summarised in para 4.29? And, what practices should be proscribed by regulatory fiat? Please comment with justifications.

ETNO is similar to India’s COAI which makes it an industry lobby group. Understandably, the suggestions made by ETNO heavily favor the telecom companies and will be detrimental to customers if India refers to their suggestions.

ETNO’s stand have been widely criticized in the past. Europe’s own group of government regulators [Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communication (BEREC)] ETNO’s proposals could jeopardize the “continued development of the open, dynamic and global platform that the Internet provides” which will “lead to an overall loss of welfare”. Additionally, the international free expression group Article 19 says ETNO’s proposal “would seriously undermine net neutrality.

According to Access Now, ETNO’s recommendations would have meant higher data charges for customers while from an entrepreneur’s standpoint, it will limit their ability to reach out to a wider market. For a small but fast growing startup and digital media sector in India, this can potentially ring the death knell. ETNO’s suggestions on this subject so far have failed to have been accepted by any government agency – including the regulators in their own host countries. It is therefore especially troubling that TRAI is choosing to make one of their proposals a pillar of this public consultation here in India.

Question 9: What are your views on net-neutrality in the Indian context? How should the various principles discussed in para 5.47 be dealt with? Please comment with justifications.

Net Neutrality, by definition, means no discrimination of traffic flowing on the internet with respect to speed, access and price. Chile and Brazil, which are developing countries just like India, have passed laws supporting net neutrality. This is in addition to government commitments to implement net neutrality legislation in the United States and European Union.

India has 1 billion people without internet access and it is imperative for our democracy to have an open and free internet where users are free to choose the services they want to access—instead of a telecom operator deciding what information they can access.

Internet apps and services are expected to contribute 5% to India’s GDP by 2020. That will only happen of entrepreneurs, big and small, have a level playing field that encourages innovation and non-preferential treatment—something that net neutrality ensures.

Assuming there is no net neutrality, only the big players will be able to strike deals with telcos while the smaller players remain inaccessible, which will go against the principles of net neutrality as listed below:

No blocking by TSPs and ISPs on specific forms of internet traffic, services and applications.

No slowing or “throttling” internet speeds by TSPs and ISPs on specific forms of internet traffic, services and applications.

No preferential treatment of services and platforms by TSPs and ISPs.

It is also worth noting that the proposed framework will give too much power in the hands of the telecom companies, which is not healthy for the ecosystem.

Question 10: What forms of discrimination or traffic management practices are reasonable and consistent with a pragmatic approach? What should or can be permitted? Please comment with justifications.

This question assumes that traffic discrimination is necessary and is a norm. Rather, traffic discrimination should be an exception as it is against the principles of net neutrality.

In such exceptional cases, telecom companies need to have the permission of TRAI or other competent government agency through public hearing to carry out “traffic management” to ensure transparency in the entire process. Further, it should be kept in mind that such steps shouldn’t interfere with the access, affordability and quality of the services.

More importantly, jointly by BEREC and the European Commission suggest that the propensity of the telecom operators to restrict access of internet services is high. The report noted that telecom operators were most inclined to block and throttle P2P services on mobile as well as fixed line networks. VoIP, on the other hand, was blocked mostly on telecom networks.

Keeping this in mind, TRAI needs to ensure that instances of discrimination of traffic should be few, far between and, above all, transparent.

Question 11: Should the TSPs be mandated to publish various traffic management techniques used for different OTT applications? Is this a sufficient condition to ensure transparency and a fair regulatory regime?

The question is based on the premise that publishing various traffic management techniques for Internet services will ensure a fair regulatory regime and therefore such discrimination is permissible. We have repeatedly said in the above answers that discrimination of services will not bring about a fair regime for users.

Further, a recent study [] in the UK has pointed out that merely publishing data on traffic management will not translate into a fair regime. The study found that most consumers did not understand traffic management or use it as a basis for switching operators. Those who did do so comprised a group perceived to be small or insignificant enough that most network operators did not seek to factor them into their product decisions, despite some consumers’ complaints about traffic management. In India where awareness and activism on issues of net neutrality is considerably less, it is unlikely to play the critical role that the Consultation Paper suggests.

Question 12: How should a conducive and balanced environment be created such that TSPs are able to invest in network infrastructure and CAPs are able to innovate and grow? Who should bear the network upgradation costs? Please comment with justifications

The question assumes that a “balanced” environment would lead to increased investment and upgradation of networks.. However, if revenue is generated by charging CAPs to reach customers rather than only charging users for data, the incentives for a TSP can potentially change. Telecom operators now gain the incentive to maintain a level scarcity and not upgrade existing infrastructure in order to maximize gatekeeper revenue. There is no evidence to support that access fees charged to CAPs will spark network upgradation and may have the opposite effect itself.

We’ve mentioned before that telecom operators should be acting as data pipes which can provide users access to Internet and that they stand to substantially gain from upgrading networks. Telecom operators stand to gain substantially by upgrading existing networks by proliferating the use of data by users, and it therefore stands to reason that the costs of upgradation should be borne by them. The above answers also point out that the heads of the leading telecom operators in the country have not seen evidence of cannibalization of existing services and that data usage has only been steadily increasing.

Question 13: Should TSPs be allowed to implement non-price based discrimination of services? If so, under what circumstances are such practices acceptable? What restrictions, if any, need to be placed so that such measures are not abused? What measures should be adopted to ensure transparency to consumers? Please comment with justifications.

Discrimination of services in any form is detrimental for the growth of the telecom industry itself and there should be no circumstance for a telecom operator to do so. Given the diverse nature of the Internet, telecom operators should not be allowed to determine what type of service should get more priority. For example, a consumer in India probably relies on VoIP calls to keep in touch with people abroad and if there is throttling of these services, it infringes on the user’s fundamental right of freedom of expression. An Internet service that a telecom operator thinks which could lead to traffic congestion, might be vital to consumers. Further, a telecom operator might use throttling to further a service promoted by them and induce consumers into using them, thereby eliminating choice.

Transparency alone will not bring about a fair regime for users, and it is crucial that TSPs be prohibited from discriminating between services

Question 14: Is there a justification for allowing differential pricing for data access and OTT communication services? If so, what changes need to be brought about in the present tariff and regulatory framework for telecommunication services in the country? Please comment with justifications.

The question above is simply a rephrasing Question 13. Differential pricing for data access and OTT communication services again simply amounts to discrimination of data services. Hence there is no justification for differential pricing other than furthering corporate profit. Telecom operators stand to gain substantially from the proliferation of all data services including communication services. A neutral internet allows smaller companies to innovate and compete with larger players and ensure that there is a free market. Any changes in the present tariff and regulatory framework is not needed save for ensuring that the interests of the consumer is taken care of.

Question 15: Should OTT communication service players be treated as Bulk User of Telecom Services (BuTS)? How should the framework be structured to prevent any discrimination and protect stakeholder interest? Please comment with justification.

Treating OTT communication service players as Bulk User of Telecom Services again amounts to discrimination of data services and hence it should not be allowed. The question also further assumes that the stakeholders are only the telecom operators and not the consumers. If only the interests of the telecom operators are protected by treating services which compete with their traditional services differently rather than innovating themselves, it would lead to a situation of anti-competitiveness. Telecom companies have an interest in imposing their control over information and communication networks, but the price of that would mean stifling competition, increased barriers for innovation and business and eventually infringe on the fundamental rights of Indian citizens.

Question 16: What framework should be adopted to encourage India-specific OTT apps? Please comment with justifications.

Only two steps need to be taken to foster the growth and innovation of India specific apps and services. First, there should be no additional regulation or licensing and strong net neutrality laws should be enacted.

These steps will ensure that India continues to have a diverse app economy where entry barriers are minimal and entrepreneurs can launch their product without having to worry about discriminatory treatment from the telecom operators. In such a case, the best product will win which will be beneficial for the customers and the telecom as well as the Internet industry.

The agnostic nature of internet networks has boosted the growth of India’s app economy but we risk destroying this fast growing sector by violating net neutrality.

Question 17: If the OTT communication service players are to be licensed, should they be categorised as ASP or CSP? If so, what should be the framework? Please comment with justifications.

The question of categorising doesn’t even arise, because as mentioned earlier any extra regulations or licensing is going to be detrimental to the end user. Requiring licensing of online services and mobile apps under the current telecom framework in India will have enormous negative consequences. The impossibly onerous burdens imposed by such licensing would results in many such globally developed services and apps not being launched in India – and our own startup efforts to develop local versions of such apps being killed in their early stages. The net results would be decreased consumer benefit and a massive slowdown in innovation and reduced “Make in India” efforts due to the regulatory cost of doing business becoming very high.

Question 18: Is there a need to regulate subscription charges for OTT communication services? Please comment with justifications.

Subscription charges for such apps need to be allowed to evolve as it would in a pure market economy. The subscribers (buyers) would want to pay the lowest possible price, and the app developers/companies (sellers) would want to charge as much as possible, eventually leading to a fair price.

Subscription charges for such Internet-based services have remained, more or less, quite low in India, especially because the cost of switching from one service provider to another is also quite low: This competition will ensure that charges remain fair, without the need to regulate them, going forward as well. As noted in response to earlier questions, existing Indian law also applies to online services – which would include the Consumer Protection Act and other regulations meant to prevent cheating or other illegal pricing issues.

Question 19: What steps should be taken by the Government for regulation of non-communication OTT players? Please comment with justifications.

As mentioned earlier, irrespective of what an OTT app is used for (communication, online shopping, etc) they’re all essentially Internet-based services, and hence there is no question of creating new regulatory measures.

Question 20: Are there any other issues that have a bearing on the subject discussed?

Here are the additional steps that I urge the TRAI to undertake in the interest of the public:

– Due to the absence of any formal regulations on net neutrality, TRAI should issue an order or regulation preventing network neutrality violations by telecom service providers. Some telecom companies have shown scant respect for the issues presently under consideration and despite its questionable legality have rolled out various services which violate network neutrality. Any delay in forming regulations or preventing them in the interim till the process is complete is only likely to consolidate their status. This is not only an affront to the Internet users in India but also to the regulatory powers of the TRAI.

– TRAI is requested to publish all the responses and counter responses to the consultation, including any other additional material, on its website.

– For better public involvement and awareness, open house debates should be held in major Indian cities after the consultation process is over.


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How to Write and Publish a Research Paper

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on April 8, 2015

How to Write and Publish a Research Paper

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Planning your Manuscript
1. The research paper topic should be unique and there should be a logical reason to study it.
2. Do your homework. Make sure you know what investigators in your field and other fields have published about your topic (or similar topics). There is no substitute for a good literature review before jumping into a new project.
3. Take the time to plan your experimental design. As a general rule, more time should be devoted to planning your study than to actually performing the experiments (though there are some exceptions, such as time-course studies with lengthy time points). Rushing into the hands-on work without properly designing the study is a common mistake made by young researchers.
4. When designing your experiment, choose your materials wisely. Look to the literature to see what others have used. Similar products from different companies do not all work the same way. In fact, some do not work at all.
5. Get help. If you are performing research techniques for the first time, be sure to consult an experienced friend or colleague. Rookie mistakes are commonplace in academic research and lead to wasted time and resources.
6. Know what you want to study, WHY you want to study it, and how your results will contribute to the current pool of knowledge for the subject.
7. Be able to clearly state a hypothesis before starting your work. Focus your efforts on researching this hypothesis. All too often people start a project and are taken adrift by new ideas that come along the way. While ideas are good to note, be sure to keep your focus.
8. Along with keeping focus, know your experimental endpoints. Sometimes data collection goes smoothly and you want to dig deeper and deeper into the subject. If you want to keep digging deeper, do it with a follow-up study.
9. Keep in mind where you might like to publish your study. If you are aiming for a high-impact journal, you may need to do extensive research and data collection. If your goal is to publish in a lower-tier journal, your research plan may be very different.
10. If your study requires approval by a review board or ethics committee, be sure to get the documentation as needed. Journals will often require that you provide such information.
11. If your study involves patients or patient samples, explicit permissions are generally required from the participant or donor, respectively. Journals may ask for copies of the corresponding documentation.
12. Read and follow ALL of the guidelines for manuscript preparation listed for an individual journal. Most journals have very specific formatting and style guidelines for the text body, abstract, images, tables, and references.
13. HYPOTHESIS: be sure to have one and state it clearly. This is, after all, why you are doing the research.
14. Write as though your work is meaningful and important. If you don’t, people will not perceive it as meaningful and important.
15. Use an external peer review service (available through to get your manuscript reviewed prior to submission. Rapid and expert peer reviews, before you submit, may significantly increase your odds of getting your manuscript accepted for publication.
16. Critique your own work. Look for areas that reviewers might spot as weaknesses and either correct these areas or comment on them in your manuscript, leaving reviewers with fewer options for negative criticisms.
17. Always present the study as a finished piece of work (although you may suggest future directions). Otherwise, you can be sure reviewers will suggest additional research.
18. Be painstaking. Be thorough and patient with several rounds of editing of your work while considering all the tiny details of the specifications requested by the journal. It will pay off in the end.
19. Focus. If you have a hypothesis to develop, be consistent to the end. Have substantial and convincing evidence to prove your theories. Brainstorm your ideas and have a definite direction mapped out before beginning to write an article.
20. Write in a precise and accurate way. Avoid long sentences; the reader may find them difficult to follow.
21. Team-like spirit is an important attribute that contributes to successful publishing. Welcome advice from those around you with potentially valuable input. No matter how competent you feel, having your work seen through a different lens may help to spot flaws that you were unable to identify.
22. As a final step, after completing your research paper, edit, edit, edit. You need to identify and correct any and all mistakes that you may have made.
23. Short papers are more likely to be read than long ones.
24. Select a descriptive title. Flash and puns are rarely as appealing as they may seem at first. You are better off going simple and descriptive. This will also help you get cited.
25. Focus on the information the readers require when following your experiment, modeling description, or data analysis instead of overloading them with details that might have been important during the study but are irrelevant for them.
26. Your paper should advance a particular line of research. It does not need to answer every remaining question about the topic.
27. If you present your work at an academic conference prior to submitting it for publication, get constructive criticisms from as many potential reviewers as possible.
28. Make sure your paper reads well. A bunch of choppy, simple sentences, while grammatically correct, is unpleasant to read.
29. Clear, concise, and grammatically correct English. Period.
30. Non-native English speakers should ALWAYS try to arrange for a review by a native speaker. If you know someone with excellent proofreading skills and a general knowledge about your research discipline (ex. Biological Sciences), ask them to help you out. If you don’t know someone who meets these criteria, use a professional editing service such as that offered at You will save yourself from a great deal of frustration and lost time.
31. Show friends and colleagues your work, including those in different fields of research. Get as much feedback as you can before you submit.
32. The body of the paper supports the central idea and must show a thoughtful, comprehensive study of the research topic; it should be clearly written and easy to follow. It generally includes three main parts: 1) Methodology, 2) Results & Data Analysis, and 3) Discussion.
33. When referencing other papers, do not simply reference work in the same way other papers have. If paper X says that paper Y showed a specific result, check for yourself to ensure that this is true before saying the same thing in your own manuscript. The number of reputable authors who misunderstand their colleagues’ findings is shocking.
34. If you are in the process of running a follow-up experiment, write your manuscript in such a way that it begs for that experiment. When reviewers respond and request it you will already have it completed.
35. Start your article with a comprehensive yet concise literature review of your exact subject and highlight in which way your paper will make a new contribution to the field.
36. Throughout your introduction use the past tense. One exception to this is when you are speaking about generally accepted facts and figures (ex. Heart disease is the leading cause of death…).
37. Avoid using new acronyms. They will simply confuse the readers.
38. The introduction of a research paper is extremely important. It generally presents a brief literature review, the problem and the purpose of your research work. It should be powerful, simple, realistic, and logical to entice the reader to read the full paper.
39. Avoid unnecessarily long paragraphs. Break up your paragraphs into smaller, useful units.
40. Do not be afraid to use headings in your introduction (and discussion).
Materials & Methods
41. Do not over-explain common scientific procedures. For example, you do not need to explain how PCR or Western Blotting work, just that you used the techniques. If you are using a novel technique, then you need to explain the steps involved.
42. Use third person passive tense. For example, “RNA was extracted from the cells.” Compare this with, “We extracted RNA from the cells.”
43. Be sure to mention from which companies you purchased any significant reagents for your experiments.
44. When in doubt about how to report your materials and methods, look to papers published in recognized journals that use similar methods and/or materials.
45. Do not mention sources of typical labware (beakers, stripettes, pipet tips, cell culture flasks, etc).
46. Make sure your graphs and tables can speak for themselves. A lot of people skim over academic papers.
47. The Results section should contain only results, no discussion.
48. Do not repeat in words everything that your tables and graphs convey. You can, however, point out key findings and offer some text that complements the findings.
49. Be sure to number your figures and tables according to journal guidelines and refer to them in the text in the manner specified by the journal.
50. Clear to read graphs are essential. Do not overload graphs with data. Make sure axis descriptions are not too small.
51. Your discussion section should answer WHY you obtained the observed results. Do not simply restate the results. Also address WHY your results are important (i.e. how do they advance the understanding of the topic).
52. If multiple explanations for your results exist, be sure to address each one. You can favor one explanation but be sure to mention alternative explanations, if some exist. If you don’t, your reviewers will.
53. If your research findings are suggestive or supportive rather than decisive then make sure to indicate so. NEVER overstate the importance of your research findings. Rather, clearly point to their true significance.
54. Understand the message of your paper. You may discover what the message is only after a literature search, as is occasionally the case for some manuscript types such as case reports.
55. Highlight how your research contributes to the current knowledge in the field and mention the next steps or what remains. Feel free to explain why your results falsify current theories if that is the case.
56. Make sure that your discussion is concise and informative. If you ramble and include a great deal of unnecessary information, your paper will likely get rejected or at least be looked upon less favorably.
Conclusions & References
57. The importance of the conclusions section should not be overlooked. It includes a brief restatement of the other parts of the research paper, such as the methodology, data analysis and results, and concludes the overall discussion. It should be brief, concise, and worth remembering.
58. Reference page: All references used as sources of information in your research paper should be mentioned to strengthen your paper and also to avoid your work being considered plagiarized.
59. Failure to include every obscure reference to a topic will NOT prevent publication. What WILL prevent publication is procrastination by insisting on including such references.
60. Use bibliographic software such as EndNote or RefWorks. This will help you format your references section readily when you make changes throughout your paper after getting suggestions from friends, colleagues or reviewers.
61. In your abstract, limit the amount of background information you provide. Try to give only what is necessary in a couple of sentences or less.
62. Never refer to figures or tables in your abstract.
63. When writing an abstract, always use the past tense since you are giving a summary of what was done. One exception is if you mention future directions in your concluding statement.
64. Write a clear and concise abstract. The reader has to understand the study rationale, the methods used, and the study findings. Many researchers will only ever read the abstract of your paper so it must contain the most pertinent information.
65. Be sure to check journal guidelines for abstract length. Many journals will not accept abstracts longer than 200-250 words.
66. Feel free to hook readers with a “big picture” statement to open the abstract. Remember, many action editors will know very little about your topic area and, in some cases, your abstract will be the only thing that dictates whether or not you get through triage.
Journal Selection
67. The most common mistake to be made is not knowing the body of research in which an article fits. Wrong choice of journal for publishing spells outright rejection. Even if the article is very encouraging with sound and rigorous scholarly work, it will not stand the test.
68. Look at journals that have published articles on your topic previously. This is an encouraging sign that your work may appeal to the journal editors.
69. Look at journal impact factors. This will give you an idea of the quality of the journal and how difficult it will be to get your paper accepted.
70. Look at journal acceptance/rejection rates. These are sometimes, but not always, inversely correlated with impact factor values.
71. Look at average time to publication as well as average time to acceptance/rejection notification. If you want your work published fast then make sure you choose a journal that offers rapid processing. Some journals will highlight their rapid processing times as an impetus for authors to submit their work to those particular journals.
72. Some journals charge fees for manuscript processing or color figure reproduction for accepted manuscripts. Make sure you are familiar with the costs associated with publication before you submit your work.
Manuscript Submission
73. Look at papers recently published in your journal of interest. Ask yourself if your paper is of equal or higher caliber. If not, submit your work to a different journal.
74. Identify the journals related to your field of study and their individual focuses, and then select a journal with a focus similar to the content of your manuscript. Many journals will clearly describe their focus and scope on their website.
75. Consider your field of study. Every field of study has several different journals publishing information pertaining to that field. Knowing the names of those journals narrows your prospective playing field.
76. Select two or three journals with a focus similar to the content of your manuscript. While you are only going to be published in one, preparing multiple choices keeps you from having to duplicate the selection process immediately following your possible rejection.
77. Locate the contact information for each journal and any information pertaining to submissions. Make sure you get the most recent information, as the names of editors and submission policies can change over time and without warning.
78. Go over your manuscript to ensure it is formatted according to the submission guidelines, paying special attention to the references/bibliography, text formatting, and citation style.
79. Create your cover letter. This should include the name of the editor to whom you are sending your work, if available. While you want to be personable, you should avoid being too personal. This is a business communication, not a letter to your friend. Be sure to keep it professional. Include contact information for the editor in case he or she should wish to speak with you about your work.
80. Get your cover letter professionally edited. Cover letters are often the first thing that a journal editor will read. Your letter needs to be strong and impressive, as it can set the tone for the subsequent review process.
81. Submit your work. This could be done physically or electronically, depending on the submission guidelines of your selected journal. In the case of electronic submissions, some journals will accept attachments; others will not. Be sure to send your work in the correct format. If you are sending it physically, include a self-addressed, stamped envelope, either large enough to return your work in or just large enough for them to send you a letter.
82. Aim high but not too high. Aiming for top tier journals with research findings that are not groundbreaking will leave you with a lot of rejections and lost time.
83. Do NOT submit your article to more than one journal at a time. This is unethical and you will eventually get caught.
84. When uploading text, table and image files electronically, many submission systems will dynamically assemble your files into a single PDF document for easier handling. Be sure to review your PDF after it is generated to ensure that it looks correct and that all information has been included.
85. Respect word length. Many journals have specific requirements for word length for different document types (original articles, short reports, case reports, review papers, etc). If the journal says the word limit is 6000 then do not send a paper with 6100 words.
86. If a journal allows you to suggest reviewers for your manuscript, do so. This can work to your advantage. Suggest reviewers who know your field well and who might be interested in the results presented in your paper.
87. If a journal allows you to suggest reviewers who you do not want to review your paper, take advantage of this to make sure your work is not sent to someone in your field who may not see eye to eye with you, your supervisor, your lab, or your research in general.
88. If you definitely do not want your paper reviewed by specific individuals in your field, do not submit a paper to a journal where these individuals have published recently. Editors often look to people who have recently published on a similar topic in their journal to serve as reviewers.
89. If you think specific reviewers may look favorably upon your work, look to journals where they have recently published and submit your work there, if it is within scope. In doing so, be sure to reference these individuals in your manuscript whenever credit is due. There is nothing that angers peer reviewers more than reviewing an article in which their own work should be cited and is not.
90. Read the mission statement for the journal to which you will submit your work. If your paper is highly theoretical and the journal clearly states that it does not publish purely theoretical work, find a new journal.
91. Email the editor to see if your manuscript topic is appropriate. Most will happily direct you elsewhere if it is inappropriate for their journal.
92. Look for journals that have issued calls for papers. They are more likely to look upon any work favorably.
93. When you get initial peer reviews, consider them carefully. In your resubmission cover letter, respond to each point made by each reviewer. Highlight the points you followed and the ones you did not (and indicate why).
94. When you are asked to perform additional studies, do them quickly and resubmit your manuscript as soon as possible.
95. If reviewers suggest changes/additional studies before the article can be published, respond to the editor indicating that you will address these suggestions so that they know your intentions.
96. Do not respond to reviewer comments in an argumentative tone. Be polite but straightforward. Feel free to disagree but be sure to have hard evidence to support your claims.
97. If accepted, be sure to carefully check page proofs and do so quickly. A 24-48 hour turnaround request is typical.
98. In responding to reviewer comments, it is a good idea to copy and paste the reviewers’ comments verbatim in one color (e.g. black) and add your responses in another color (e.g. blue). You should also copy and paste any relevant sections from your revised manuscript into your cover letter. Ideally, a reviewer should be able to tell how adequately you have addressed their comments without having to read your revised manuscript.
99. Well-organized, well-written response letters can help a manuscript circumvent re-review. The editor will see the changes that you have made and may accept it outright.
100. Remember to select as many “Key Words” as possible. Many people do key word searches when performing literature reviews. This will increase the likelihood of your manuscript being read.
101. We want you, the reader, to send us your tips. If we like what you send us, it might just occupy position 101 on our list.


Posted in International Conferences, International Journals, Journals & Conferences, National Conferences, National Journals | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

20 Compelling Reasons to Spend Less Time on Facebook and More Time on LinkedIn

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on April 8, 2015

If you’re like most college students, chances are good that you spend more time on Facebook than you do on LinkedIn. But if you’re concerned with furthering your career (and you should be), it’s time to switch over to a more professional network. We’ve shared 20 great reasons why you need to be spending your time on LinkedIn much more than Facebook, and we hope they motivate you to make a change for the better. These reasons should be especially compelling for students earning online bachelor’s degrees, as they will have fewer face-to-face networking opportunities and will need to capitalize on their online networking skills to bolster their job hunt.


    LinkedIn was created to connect professionals in online networking; Facebook was not. Although both services have evolved to include elements of each other, they do still remain true to their original purpose, and LinkedIn excels at presenting a professional front.


    Although experts are increasingly flocking to Facebook, it’s still hard for some people to take the site seriously. On LinkedIn, the setting is much more open to gaining expert status and credibility. Forums, question and answer sections, and groups make it simpler to connect and share your knowledge in a credible way. Students working toward a graduate degree can even share their research with other experts in the field and receive valuable feedback as they complete master’s theses and doctoral dissertations.


    Although some colleges take a lax approach to social media, many still frown on Facebook connections between students and professors. But on LinkedIn, connections are typically seen as a positive thing, opening you up to the resources that your professors can share with you, including positive recommendations.


    Facebook is on track to hit the 1 billion-user mark this year, a figure that basically obliterates LinkedIn’s comparatively small 135 million plus users. One might think that more users means more exposure, and that would be correct, but on Facebook, you can’t be sure that the millions of users are actually online to hear about your professional life. On LinkedIn, you can expect to reach a more targeted audience that is connected to you, interested in your work, and willing to listen to what you have to say.


    A recommendation on either LinkedIn or Facebook is a great way to put your best foot forward, but you’re simply more likely to land one on LinkedIn. Recent stats show that 36% of LinkedIn users make a recommendation, compared to 27% of Facebook users. LinkedIn also has a 57% interested recommendation response, compared with 42% on Facebook.


    While on Facebook, you may be surfing to find out about the latest cat video or your friend’s wedding photos, but LinkedIn tends to lead to a more task-driven visit. Users log in to check out job and collaboration opportunities, people to hire, and relevant industry news.


    Even if you haven’t been hired for a job in your life, chances are you’ve volunteered or done an internship before graduation. LinkedIn is specifically designed to help you showcase this experience.


    LinkedIn is a great place to collect references, share your work experience, professional samples, and more. Your Facebook Timeline is much more like a digital scrapbook of personal experiences.


    While you can search for people and terms on Facebook, LinkedIn really shines in this category. You can search for companies, find people to connect with, get news, and more on LinkedIn. Your profile is also highly searchable, and represents a great tool for allowing recruiters to find you.


    Although LinkedIn functions as an online resume, it’s also a time saver when it comes to creating one that you can print and hand out. Use this feature to stop neglecting your paper resume and have something to hand in.


    Experts report that students who regularly surf Facebook do not do as well on tests. In fact, some students suffered by as much as an entire grade. They believe that using the social media site takes up valuable study time.


    Facebook and LinkedIn are both experiencing growth in applications shared on their sites. But LinkedIn stands out for the number of candidates who actually apply. You can expect recruiters to go where the interest is, which clearly rests with LinkedIn.


    Facebook is fun, but for most users, it takes up much more time than it should. In a comparison, researchers found that Facebook visits resulted in stays of 405 minutes per visitor, compared with 17 minutes on LinkedIn. It is much wiser to spend 17 focused minutes on LinkedIn than several hours frittering your time away on Facebook.


    Facebook has groups, but not on the level that LinkedIn does. LinkedIn remains an incredible resource for connecting and networking in industry groups on the site.


    In a recent comparison of job search markers on Facebook and LinkedIn, LinkedIn beat Facebook handily in every category. The most interesting and revealing, however, was social employee hires, with LinkedIn earning 73% and Facebook at a low 22%.


    One of the best features of LinkedIn is the ability to be introduced to new business contacts through the site, especially through contacts you already know. So if you’ve recently completed a business degree and want to expand your professional connections, LinkedIn in the place to be.


    Out of all the popular social media sites, LinkedIn users have the highest average income of $89K. If you’re looking to earn a good salary, you’ll be in great company on LinkedIn.


    The top activities on LinkedIn are industry networking, keeping in touch, and networking between coworkers.


    While your friends on Facebook may be sharing music videos that you scroll right past, LinkedIn works hard to bring you content that is the most relevant to you. The site sends emails to users with the most-shared news, groups that belong to your job focus, and contacts you’re likely to be interested in getting to know.


    Facebook is growing in this respect with better Pages, but LinkedIn still wins the battle of employer research. You find out who works there, who used to work there, whether or not you have any connections within the company, and more. For example, if you recently earned a master’s degree in finance, and are looking for employment with major financial services companies, you can search for employment leads by networking with a company’s current and former employees.

Posted in Apps Development, Computer Softwares, Installation, Other | Leave a Comment »

Setup has failed to validate the Product key on Windows 8.1 Upgrade

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on April 7, 2015


Setup has failed to validate the Product key on Windows 8.1 Upgrade

While installing or upgrading to Windows 8.1 from your local drive, “Something Happened; Setup has failed to validate the product key” error message may halt your installation. Here’s an easy solution to the problem.

Windows 8.1 Failed to validate product key

This type of problem mostly happens if you are installing Windows 8.1 from your hard drive which is extracted from an ISO file that is downloaded or installing from USB thumb drive without boot. Installing Windows 8.1 from local drive by clicking on setup.exe (without boot) should not make any problem to 8.1 unless you done any wrong.

How to Fix Setup has failed to validate the Product key Problem

Step 1: Download the modified EI.CFG file (1KB) from Both pro and enterprise edition files are included.

Step 2: Now locate the folder “sources” on USB-stick or the folder where you extracted the ISO image (windows ISO extracted files and folders should look like following).

Locate the Folder 'sources'

Step 3: Paste the newly downloaded ei.cfg file in “sources” folder. Replace the old file (you may take a backup of the old file).

Step 4: Done! Now you can install and upgrade to Windows 8.1 by clicking on that blue setup.exe without facing the product key validation error.

Tell us if it worked.

Posted in Computer Softwares, Installation | Tagged: , | 1 Comment »

Build and Use OpenBLAS in Microsoft Visual Studio

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on March 27, 2015

Build and Use OpenBLAS in Microsoft Visual Studio

As of OpenBLAS v0.2.10, it is currently only possible on Windows to build OpenBLAS with MinGW. The resulting library can be used in Visual Studio, but it can only be linked dynamically. This configuration has not been thoroughly tested and should be considered experimental.

Incompatible x86 calling conventions

Due to incompatibilities between the calling conventions of MinGW and Visual Studio you will need to make the following modifications ( 32-bit only ):

  1. Use the newer GCC 4.7.0. The older GCC (<4.7.0) has an ABI incompatibility for returning aggregate structures larger than 8 bytes with MSVC.

Build OpenBLAS on Windows OS

  1. Install the MinGW (GCC) compiler suite, either 32-bit ( or 64-bit ( In addition, please install MSYS with MinGW.
  2. Build OpenBLAS in the MSYS shell. Usually, you can just type “make”. OpenBLAS will detect the compiler and CPU automatically.
  3. After the build is complete, OpenBLAS will generate the static library “libopenblas.a” and the shared dll library “libopenblas.dll” in the folder. You can type “make PREFIX=/your/installation/path install” to install the library to a certain location.

**Notice. We suggest using official MingWin or MingWin-w64 compilers. A user reported that s/he met Unhandled exception by other compiler suite.!topic/openblas-users/me2S4LkE55w

Generate import library (before 0.2.10 version)

  1. First, you will need to have the lib.exe tool in the Visual Studio command prompt.
  2. Open the command prompt and type cd OPENBLAS_TOP_DIR/exports, where OPENBLAS_TOP_DIR is the main folder of your OpenBLAS installation.
  3. For a 32-bit library, type lib /machine:i386 /def:libopenblas.def. For 64-bit, typelib /machine:X64 /def:libopenblas.def.
  4. This will generate the import library “libopenblas.lib” and the export library “libopenblas.exp” in OPENBLAS_TOP_DIR/exports. Although these two files have the same name, they are totally different.

Generate import library (0.2.10 and after version)

  1. OpenBLAS already generated the import library “libopenblas.dll.a” for “libopenblas.dll”.

Use OpenBLAS .dll library in Visual Studio

  1. Copy the import library (before 0.2.10: “OPENBLAS_TOP_DIR/exports/libopenblas.lib”, 0.2.10 and after: “OPENBLAS_TOP_DIR/libopenblas.dll.a”) and .dll library “libopenblas.dll” into the same folder.
  2. Please follow the documentation about using third-party .dll libraries in MS Visual Studio 2008 or 2010. Make sure to link against a library for the correct architecture. For example, you may receive an error such as “The application was unable to start correctly (0xc00007b)” which typically indicates a mismatch between 32/64-bit libraries.

Notice. If you need CBLAS, you should include cblas.h in /your/installation/path/include in Visual Studio. Please read this page.


  • Both static and dynamic linking are supported with MinGW. With Visual Studio, however, only dynamic linking is supported and so you should use the import library.
  • Debugging from Visual Studio does not work because MinGW and Visual Studio have incompatible formats for debug information (PDB vs. DWARF/STABS). You should either debug with GDB on the command-line or with a visual frontend, for instanceEclipse or Qt Creator.

Posted in Computer Softwares, Installation, Research Menu | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Visual Studio Output Window Auto-Scrolling

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on March 17, 2015

To re-enable autoscrolling, while in the output window just hit CTRL+END.

Posted in Mixed | Leave a Comment »


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