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C Tutorials

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on September 5, 2012


Developed originally at Bell Labs by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie in the second half of the 1980’s, the C Language has become a high-level programming language responsible for almost all operating systems of today. Together with the object-oriented successor of C, C++, these two languages have become commercial software’s first choice in programming language. UNIX runs on C Language and is becoming commercially acceptable on a mass scale.

Venture capital seems to be financing C Language-based software development as it is gaining interest in the job market and receiving support from large corporations and big business markets. Communications and Information Technology are some of the employment opportunities available for the expert C Language programmer.

Like any language learning exercise, the C Language begins with Variables and Constants. These Variables and Constants of basic data types create words and sentences of C, forming the C programming language. A set of instructions and rules for writing in the C Language exists, as is part of any computer programming language. These instructions are explained in online tutorials defining Statements, Expressions, Operators, Managing Input/Output Operations, Strings, Arrays, Functions, Pointers, Dynamic Memory allocation and more.

Using Preprocessor directives, Macros, define identifier string, Simple macro substitution, Macros as arguments, Nesting of macros, Un-defining a macro and File inclusion, the C Language programmer becomes familiar with the terms and functions of this complex programming language. The preprocessor in the C Language is examined in tutorials that describe modifying and reading C Language and discuss efficiency and portability.

  1. C Programming – an Overview

    This tutorial will give you an overview of the C programming language. We will cover some of the history of C why people use it where it is being used and the basic structure of programs in C. History The C language was developed at AT& T Bell Labs in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie. It was based on an earlier Bell Labs language B

  2. C Programming – Data Types : Part 1

    C language provides various data types for holding different kinds of values. There are several integral data types a character data type floating point data types for holding real numbers and more. In addition you can define your own data types using aggregations of the native types. The C standard gives detailed specifications on the language;

  3. C Programming – Data Types : Part 2

    Structure A struct is an aggregate type meaning that it is made up of other objects. The objects that make up a struct are called its members. The members of a struct may be accessed by the . or – operators. A struct may be named or unnamed. Let s look at some examples mosgoole geshibot language c include

  4. C Programming – Constants and Identifiers

    This tutorial will cover constants and identifiers in C. Constants as the name implies are values that never change. In the previous tutorial on data types you have seen how a variable can be declared constant by making use of the const keyword. You can also declare a constant by directly entering its value in the source code. For example

  5. C Programming – Operators

    C programming language provides several operators to perform different kind to operations. There are operators for assignment arithmetic functions logical functions and many more. These operators generally work on many types of variables or constants though some are restricted to work on certain types. Most operators are binary meaning

  6. C Programming – Expressions

    Expressions in C are basically operators acting on operands. Statements like a b 3 z and 300 8 k are all expressions. Strictly speaking even a single variable or constant can be considered an expression. You have seen several expressions in the previous C tutorial on Operators in which the examples involved expressions. Precedence

  7. C Programming – Managing Input and Output Operations Author: Brian Moriya

    Input Output operations are useful for program that interact with user take input from the user and print messages. The standard library for input output operations used in C is stdlib. When working with input and output in C there are two important streams standard input and standard output. Standard input or stdin is a data stream for

  8. C Programming – Decision Making – Branching

    Decision making is one of the most important concepts of computer programming. Programs should be able to make logical true false decisions based on the condition they are in; every program has one or few problem s to solve; depending on the nature of the problems important decisions have to be made in order to solve those particular problems.

  9. C Programming – Decision Making – Looping

    Loops are group of instructions executed repeatedly while certain condition remains true. There are two types of loops counter controlled and sentinel controlled loops repetition . Counter controlled repetitions are the loops which the number of repetitions needed for the loop is known before the loop begins; these loops have control variables

  10. C Programming – Arrays Author: Brian Moriya

    Array is a collection of same type elements under the same variable identifier referenced by index number. Arrays are widely used within programming for different purposes such as sorting searching and etc. Arrays allow you to store a group of data of a single type.  Arrays are efficient and useful for performing operations . You can use

  11. C Programming – Handling of Character String Author: Brian Moriya

    In this tutorial you will learn about Initializing Strings Reading Strings from the terminal Writing strings to screen Arithmetic operations on characters String operations string.h Strlen function strcat function strcmp function strcmpi function strcpy function strlwr function strrev function and strupr function. In

  12. C Programming – Functions (Part-I) Author: Brian Moriya

    The concept of functions in C language is the same as for any other programming language. Few languages have methods but since there are no classes in C methods are not used. Functions are best used for reusable code or code that you know works and do want make use of it throughout development. If you find yourself tempted to use copy and

  13. C Programming – Functions (Part-II) Author: Brian Moriya

    Types of Functions You may have noticed the discussion about the data type> portion of the function declaration missing from the last section. The data type> refers to the type of data that would be returned by the function when it finishes executing. Data types are the same as any variable data types plus another one called void.

  14. C Programming – Structures and Unions Author: Brian Moriya

    In this tutorial you will learn about C Programming – Structures and Unions initializing structure assigning values to members functions and structures passing structure to functions passing entire function to functions arrays of structure structure within a structure and union. Structures are slightly different from the variable types

  15. C Programming – Pointers Author: Brian Moriya

    Pointers are widely used in programming; they are used to refer to memory location of another variable without using variable identifier itself. They are mainly used in linked lists and call by reference functions. Diagram 1 illustrates the idea of pointers. As you can see below; Yptr is pointing to memory address 100. Diagram 1 1. Pointer

  16. C Programming – Dynamic Memory allocation Author: Brian Moriya

    Embedded and other low-memory footprint applications need to be easy on the amount of memory they use when executing.  In such scenarios statically sized data types and data structures just are not going to solve your problem.  The best way to achieve this is by allocation of memory for variables at runtime under your watchful eye. This

  17. C Programming – Linked Lists

    In this tutorial you will learn about C Programming – Linked Lists Structure Advantages of Linked List and Types of linked list and Applications of linked lists. Linked lists are a type of data structure for storing information as a list. They are a memory efficient alternative to arrays because the size of the list is only ever as large

  18. C Doubly Linked Lists Author: Brian Moriya

    In this tutorial you will learn about C Programming – What is Doubly linked lists Adding Nodes Doubly linked lists Traversing a Doubly linked lists and working with Doubly linked list Example. Doubly linked lists are the same as singly linked lists except they have an extra pointer per node so they point to the next node and the previous node. You

  19. C Circular Linked Lists Author: Brian Moriya

    In this tutorial you will learn about C Programming – What is Circular Linked List Adding Nodes to Circular Linked Lists Traversing a Circularly Linked List and working with Circularly Linked List Example. Circular linked lists are usually used for a queue or stack type situation or for implementing a round robin algorithm in system level programming.

  20. C Programming – File management in C Author: Ramesh B

    C Programming – File management in C In this tutorial you will learn about C Programming – File management in C File operation functions in C Defining and opening a file Closing a file The getw and putw functions The fprintf fscanf functions Random access to files and fseek function. C supports a number of functions that have the ability

  21. C Language – The Preprocessor Author: Ramesh B

    C Language – The Preprocessor In this tutorial you will learn about C Language – The Preprocessor Preprocessor directives Macros define identifier string Simple macro substitution Macros as arguments Nesting of macros Undefining a macro and File inclusion. The Preprocessor A unique feature of c language is the preprocessor. A program can

  22. Call by Value and Call by Reference Author: Brian Moriya

    In C programming language variables can be referred differently depending on the context. For example if you are writing a program for a low memory system you may want to avoid copying larger sized types such as structs and arrays when passing them to functions. On the other hand with data types like integers there is no point in passing by

  23. Concept of Pixel in C Graphics Author: SriPriya

    Concept of Pixel in C Graphics Pixel is otherwise called as picture elements. These are nothing but small dots. Using these tiny dots or in other words pixels images especially graphics images are built on screen. If all pictures are built by concept of pixel then wondering how each picture differ that is how some picture appear more brighter

  24. TSR in C – an Introduction Author: Ramesh B

    What does TSR stands for TSR stands for Terminate- and Stay-Resident programs What’ s Special about TSR As the name says Terminate-and-Stay-Resident TSR are programs which get loaded in memory and remain or stay there resident in memory permanently. They will be removed only when the computer is rebooted or if the TSR is explicitly removed

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