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Installing CUDA 6 on Ubuntu 12.04

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on April 18, 2014

Setup New ubuntu 12.04

  • Clean Install
  • You can manually update via terminal by running:
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get upgrade

    Additionally you can run:

    sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • enable root login
     sudo passwd root
     sudo sh -c 'echo "greeter-show-manual-login=true" >> /etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf'

           Root won’t show up as a user, but “Login” will, which is how you manually log in with users not shown in the greeter.

           Rebooted and then you should be able to login as root.

  • Download the NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit.


Pre-installation Actions

Some actions must be taken before theCUDA Toolkit and Driver can be installed on Linux:

  • Verify the system has a CUDA-capable GPU.
  • Verify the system is running a supported version of Linux.
  • Verify the system has gcc installed.
  • Download the NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit.
Note: You can override the install-time prerequisite checks by running the installer with the -override flag. Remember that the prerequisites will still be required to use the NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit.

Verify You Have a CUDA-Capable GPU

To verify that your GPU is CUDA-capable, go to your distribution’s equivalent of System Properties, or, from the command line, enter:

lspci | grep -i nvidia

If you do not see any settings, update the PCI hardware database that Linux maintains by entering update-pciids (generally found in /sbin) at the command line and rerun the previous lspci command.

If your graphics card is from NVIDIA and it is listed in, your GPU is CUDA-capable.

The Release Notes for the CUDA Toolkit also contain a list of supported products.

 Verify You Have a Supported Version of Linux

The CUDA Development Tools are only supported on some specific distributions of Linux. These are listed in the CUDA Toolkit release notes.

To determine which distribution and release number you’re running, type the following at the command line:

uname -m && cat /etc/*release

You should see output similar to the following, modified for your particular system:

i386 Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS release 4 (Nahant Update 6)

The i386 line indicates you are running on a 32-bit system. On 64-bit systems running in 64-bit mode, this line will generally read: x86_64. The second line gives the version number of the operating system.

Verify the System Has gcc Installed

The gcc compiler and toolchain generally are installed as part of the Linux installation, and in most cases the version of gcc installed with a supported version of Linux will work correctly.

To verify the version of gcc installed on your system, type the following on the command line:

gcc --version

If an error message displays, you need to install the development tools from your Linux distribution or obtain a version of gcc and its accompanying toolchain from the Web.

For ARMv7 cross development, a suitable cross compiler is required. For example, performing the following on Ubuntu 12.04:

sudo apt-get install g++-4.6-arm-linux-gnueabihf

will install the gcc 4.6 cross compiler on your system which will be used by nvcc. Please refer to th NVCC manual on how to use nvcc to cross compile to the ARMv7 architecture

Choose an Installation Method

The CUDA Toolkit can be installed using either of two different installation mechanisms: distribution-specific packages, or a distribution-independent package. The distribution-independent package has the advantage of working across a wider set of Linux distributions, but does not update the distribution’s native package management system. The distribution-specific packages interface with the distribution’s native package management system. It is recommended to use the distribution-specific packages, where possible.

Note: Distribution-specific packages and repositories are not provided for Redhat 5 and Ubuntu 10.04. For those two Linux distributions, the stand-alone installer must be used.
Note: Standalone installers are not provided for the ARMv7 release. For both native ARMv7 as well as cross developent, the toolkit must be installed using the distribution-specific installer.

Download the NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit

The NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit is available at

Choose the platform you are using and download the NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit

The CUDA Toolkit contains the CUDA driver and tools needed to create, build and run a CUDA application as well as libraries, header files, CUDA samples source code, and other resources.

Download Verification

The download can be verified by comparing the MD5 checksum posted at with that of the downloaded file. If either of the checksums differ, the downloaded file is corrupt and needs to be downloaded again.

To calculate the MD5 checksum of the downloaded file, run the following:

$ md5sum

Runfile Installation


This section describes the installation and configuration of CUDA when using the standalone installer.


Pre-installation Setup

Before the stand-alone installation can be run, perform the pre-installation actions.



If you have already installed a standalone CUDA driver and desire to keep using it, you need to make sure it meets the minimum version requirement for the toolkit. This requirement can be found in the CUDA Toolkit release notes. With many distributions, the driver version number can be found in the graphical interface menus under Applications > System Tools > NVIDIA X Server Settings.. On the command line, the driver version number can be found by running /usr/bin/nvidia-settings.

The package manager installations (RPM/DEB packages) and the stand-alone installer installations (.run file) are incompatible. See below about how to uninstall any previous RPM/DEB installation.


Copy cuda_6.0.37_linux_*.run file to Root home folder for easy access.


The standalone installer can install any combination of the NVIDIA Driver (that includes the CUDA Driver), the CUDA Toolkit, or the CUDA Samples. If needed, each individual installer can be extracted by using the -extract=/absolute/path/to/extract/location/. The extraction path must be an absolute path.

The CUDA Toolkit installation includes a read-only copy of the CUDA Samples. The read-only copy is used to create a writable copy of the CUDA Samples at some other location at any point in time. To create this writable copy, use the script provided with the toolkit. It is equivalent to installing the CUDA Samples with the standalone installer.

Extra Libraries

If you wish to build all the samples, including those with graphical rather than command-line interfaces, additional system libraries or headers may be required. While every Linux distribution is slightly different with respect to package names and package installation procedures, the libraries and headers most likely to be necessary are OpenGL (e.g., Mesa), GLU, GLUT, and X11 (including Xi, Xmu, and GLX).

On Ubuntu, those can be installed as follows:

sudo apt-get install freeglut3-dev build-essential libx11-dev libxmu-dev libxi-dev libgl1-mesa-glx libglu1-mesa libglu1-mesa-dev

Interaction with Nouveau

Proprietary Video Driver

The built-in nouveau video driver in Ubuntu is incompatible with the CUDA Toolkit, and you have to replace it with the proprietary NVIDIA driver.

$ sudo apt-get remove --purge \  xserver-xorg-video-nouveau 
The Nouveau drivers may be installed into yourroot filesystem (initramfs) and may cause the Display Driver installation to fail. To fix the situation, theinitramfs image must be rebuilt with:

sudo mv /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r).img /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r)-nouveau.img
sudo dracut /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r).img $(uname -r)

if Grub2 is used as the bootloader, the rdblacklist=nouveau nouveau.modeset=0 line must be added at the end of the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX entry in /etc/default/grub. Then, the Grub configuration must be remade by running:

sudo grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg

Once this is done, the machine must be rebooted and the installation attempted again.


Graphical Interface Shutdown

Exit the GUI if you are in a GUI environment by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. Some distributions require you to press this sequence twice in a row; others have disabled it altogether in favor of a command such as sudo service ligthdm stop. Still others require changing the system runlevel using a command such as /sbin/init 3 Consult your distribution’s documentation to find out how to properly exit the GUI. This step is only required in the event that you want to install the NVIDIA Display Driver included in the standalone installer.


NVIDIA Driver RPM/Deb package uninstallation

If you want to install the NVIDIA Display Driver included in the standalone installer, any previous driver installed through RPM or DEB packages MUST be uninstalled first. Such installation may be part of the default installation of your Linux distribution. Or it could have been installed as part of the package installation described in the previous section. To uninstall a DEB package, use sudo apt-get –purge remove package_name or equivalent. To uninstall a RPM package, use sudo yum remove package_name or equivalent.



To install any combination of the driver, toolkit, and the samples, simply execute the .run script. The installation of the driver requires the script to be run with root privileges. Depending on the target location, the toolkit and samples installations may also require root privileges.

Shutdown the all the graphics

Ubuntu uses LightDM, so you need to stop this service:

$ sudo service lightdm stop

5.2 Run the installer

Go to (using cd) the directory where you have the CUDA installer (a file with *.run extension) and type the following:

$ sudo chmod +x *.run
$ sudo ./*.run

By default, the toolkit and the samples will install under /usr/local/cuda-6.0 and $(HOME)/NVIDIA_CUDA-6.0_Samples, respectively. In addition, a symbolic link is created from /usr/local/cuda to /usr/local/cuda-6.0. The symbolic link is created in order for existing projects to automatically make use of the newly installed CUDA Toolkit.

If the target system includes both an integrated GPU (iGPU) and a discrete GPU (dGPU), the –no-opengl-libs option must be used. Otherwise, the openGL library used by the graphics driver of the iGPU will be overwritten and the GUI will not work. In addition, the xorg.conf update at the end of the installation must be declined.

Note: Installing Mesa may overwrite the /usr/lib/ that was previously installed by the NVIDIA driver, so a reinstallation of the NVIDIA driver might be required after installing these libraries.


Environment Setup

The PATH variable needs to include /usr/local/cuda-6.0/bin

The LD_LIBRARY_PATH variable needs to contain /usr/local/cuda-6.0/lib on a 32-bit system, and /usr/local/cuda-6.0/lib64 on a 64-bit system

  • To change the environment variables for 32-bit operating systems:

    $ export PATH=/usr/local/cuda-6.0/bin:$PATH
    $ export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/cuda-6.0/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
  • To change the environment variables for 64-bit operating systems:

    $ export PATH=/usr/local/cuda-6.0/bin:$PATH
    $ export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/cuda-6.0/lib64:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH


Check that the device files/dev/nvidia* exist and have the correct (0666) file permissions. These files are used by the CUDA Driver to communicate with the kernel-mode portion of the NVIDIA Driver. Applications that use the NVIDIA driver, such as a CUDA application or the X server (if any), will normally automatically create these files if they are missing using the setuidnvidia-modprobe tool that is bundled with the NVIDIA Driver. Some systems disallow setuid binaries, however, so if these files do not exist, you can create them manually either by running the command nvidia-smi as root at boot time or by using a startup script such as the one below:


/sbin/modprobe nvidia

if [ "$?" -eq 0 ]; then
  # Count the number of NVIDIA controllers found.
  NVDEVS=`lspci | grep -i NVIDIA`
  N3D=`echo "$NVDEVS" | grep "3D controller" | wc -l`
  NVGA=`echo "$NVDEVS" | grep "VGA compatible controller" | wc -l`

  N=`expr $N3D + $NVGA - 1`
  for i in `seq 0 $N`; do
    mknod -m 666 /dev/nvidia$i c 195 $i

  mknod -m 666 /dev/nvidiactl c 195 255

  exit 1

/sbin/modprobe nvidia-uvm

if [ "$?" -eq 0 ]; then
  # Find out the major device number used by the nvidia-uvm driver
  D=`grep nvidia-uvm /proc/devices | awk '{print $1}'`

  mknod -m 666 /dev/nvidia-uvm c $D 0
  exit 1


Graphical Interface Restart

Restart the GUI environment using the command startx, init 5, sudo service lightdm start, or the equivalent command on your system.



Post-installation Actions

Some actions must be taken after installing theCUDA Toolkit and Driver before they can be completely used:

  • Setup evironment variables.
  • Install a writable copy of the CUDA Samples.
  • Verify the installation.

 Environment Setup

The PATH variable needs to include /usr/local/cuda-6.0/bin

The LD_LIBRARY_PATH variable needs to contain /usr/local/cuda-6.0/lib on a 32-bit system, and /usr/local/cuda-6.0/lib64 on a 64-bit system

  • To change the environment variables for 32-bit operating systems:

    $ export PATH=/usr/local/cuda-6.0/bin:$PATH
    $ export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/cuda-6.0/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
  • To change the environment variables for 64-bit operating systems:

    $ export PATH=/usr/local/cuda-6.0/bin:$PATH
    $ export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/cuda-6.0/lib64:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH

(Optional) Install Writable Samples

In order to modify, compile, and run the samples, the samples must be installed withwrite permissions. A convenience installation script is provided:

$ <dir>

This script is installed with the cuda-samples-6-0 package. The cuda-samples-6-0 package installs only a read-only copy in /usr/local/cuda-6.0/samples.

 Verify the Installation

Before continuing, it is important to verify that the CUDA toolkit can find and communicate correctly with the CUDA-capable hardware. To do this, you need to compile and run some of the included sample programs.

Note: Ensure the PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH variables are set correctly.

Verify the Driver Version

If you installed the driver, verify that the correct version of it is installed.

This can be done through your System Properties (or equivalent) or by executing the command

cat /proc/driver/nvidia/version

Note that this command will not work on an iGPU/dGPU system.

Compiling the Examples

The version of the CUDA Toolkit can be checked by running nvcc -V in a terminal window. The nvcc command runs the compiler driver that compiles CUDA programs. It calls the gcc compiler for C code and the NVIDIA PTX compiler for the CUDA code.

The NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit includes sample programs in source form. You should compile them by changing to ~/NVIDIA_CUDA-6.0_Samples and typing make. The resulting binaries will be placed under ~/NVIDIA_CUDA-6.0_Samples/bin.

Running the Binaries

After compilation, find and run deviceQuery under ~/NVIDIA_CUDA-6.0_Samples. If the CUDA software is installed and configured correctly, the output for deviceQuery should look similar to that shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Valid Results from deviceQuery CUDA Sample

Valid Results from deviceQuery CUDA Sample.


The exact appearance and the output lines might be different on your system. The important outcomes are that a device was found (the first highlighted line), that the device matches the one on your system (the second highlighted line), and that the test passed (the final highlighted line).

If a CUDA-capable device and the CUDA Driver are installed but deviceQuery reports that no CUDA-capable devices are present, this likely means that the /dev/nvidia* files are missing or have the wrong permissions.

On systems where SELinux is enabled, you might need to temporarily disable this security feature to run deviceQuery. To do this, type:

# setenforce 0

from the command line as the superuser.

Running the bandwidthTest program ensures that the system and the CUDA-capable device are able to communicate correctly. Its output is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Valid Results from bandwidthTest CUDA Sample

Valid Results from bandwidthTest CUDA Sample.


Note that the measurements for your CUDA-capable device description will vary from system to system. The important point is that you obtain measurements, and that the second-to-last line (in Figure 2) confirms that all necessary tests passed.

Should the tests not pass, make sure you have a CUDA-capable NVIDIA GPU on your system and make sure it is properly installed.

If you run into difficulties with the link step (such as libraries not being found), consult the Linux Release Notes found in the doc folder in the CUDA Samples directory.

6. Additional Considerations

Now that you have CUDA-capable hardware and the NVIDIA CUDA Toolkit installed, you can examine and enjoy the numerous included programs. To begin using CUDA to accelerate the performance of your own applications, consult the CUDA C Programming Guide, located in /usr/local/cuda-6.0/doc.

A number of helpful development tools are included in the CUDA Toolkit to assist you as you develop your CUDA programs, such as NVIDIA® Nsight™ Eclipse Edition, NVIDIA Visual Profiler, cuda-gdb, and cuda-memcheck.

For technical support on programming questions, consult and participate in the developer forums at


Posted in Apps Development, CUDA, GPU (CUDA), GPU Accelareted, Open CL, OpenCV, OpenMP, PARALLEL | Leave a Comment »

The Smart Way to Manage a Large Research Project

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on February 26, 2014

With 3 or 4 years to complete your PhD, you might think you will have plenty of time to explore all thoughts and ideas. But time goes fast and you need to learn to manage a large research project.

You’ve got plenty of time and good brains.

Let’s be realistic. You finished your undergrad studies. You have been chosen for this PhD. You must be smart. You can handle this.

Yes, this PhD looks like a monster, but you have 3 or 4 years to tame it. Plenty of time, you think. After all, you accomplished tough goals during your life. This is not going to be different.

Fast-forward a year and a half, the monster is not tamed and you are a year and a half closer to the end. This PhD is becoming more complex than the LHC.

You are not alone. There are a large number of students needing more time to complete their degrees. Both in natural sciences and humanities, students need contract extensions.

Delaying a PhD is not rare, but it is undesirable.

Setting up a system to manage your project, to help you keep on the path while roaming through the forest, is as critical to success as your analytical capabilities. Unless you have experience in project management, this skill is something you will learn while working as a researcher.

We don’t want you to learn only by trial and error. This is why we give you some tips on how to manage a large research project and take your research onto the fast lane.

While there are seemingly as many methods to manage a large research project, the general ideas of a solid system are the same.

How to manage a large research project

Split And Plan Like A Sir

One of the most important aspects of managing a project is splitting it up in doable tasks and managing their timing. Planning consists of the following subtasks:

    • Identifying the tasks that need to be carried out.

A large research project, like a PhD or a project that will last several years, should be split in smaller research projects. For each research project, the main tasks typically are: literature reviewdevelopment of theoryexperimentsanalysis of resultsand verification of theory and then reporting the results.

    • Splitting the main tasks into their respective subtasks.

For laboratory experiments are: preparing the setup, ordering the required elements and products, preparing the measurement, setting up a system to check and process these measurements, carrying out the experiments, cleaning up and dismantling the setup and finally storing all raw data in an organized way.

    • Considering how much time each task takes.

Quantifying the amount of time you need for each subtask, is difficult in the beginning. For a first overview of the project and the main tasks, you can think in terms of weeks/months. Once you narrow down to the level of subtasks, experience and personal circumstances will determine how many hours you need for each small subtask.

    • Determining which tasks run simultaneously.

Juggling tasks is an essential part of managing a large project.

If you want to do laboratory experiments, you can’t walk into the lab on the very day your planning says you start your experiments without any previous planning, ordering of materials and negotiating your lab space and time. Similarly, reporting your results can start early on, by writing overviews, summaries and critiques of theliterature you processed.

    • Assess the consequences if a task takes more time.

Which other subtasks are affected when something early in the chain is delayed? Can you move something forward in your planning while a delay occurs? How much extra time can you spend on a subtask without missing a series of deadlines?

    • Allow some air to breathe.

From an engineering point of view, safety factors are always necessary on your time and cost budgets. A rule of thumb is to consider 20% of extra time for your tasks. We are all human and we make mistakesBy the same token: make sure you plan time off for your holidays and to recharge your batteries.Keep in mind as well that minor tasks will come along the way: teaching responsibilities, supervision of students, preparing for conferences,…


Checkpoints To Evaluate Progress In Your Research Project

Continuing the ideas to manage a large research project, regular checkpoints are an important aspect of a successful planning. You need to check regularly if you are doing good progress and if you are still running on schedule. This will keep you motivated.

These checkpoints can take different shapes, depending on the characteristic of the project: for a solitary PhD project these help to keep you motivated, while for a large European research project checks help to keep the whole team on track.

A few examples of checkpoints you can build into your planning are the following:

Flowchart how to manage a large research project

Exploring Your Data Jungle

Besides the amount of time that needs to be planned and scheduled to manage a large research project, you will also have to deal with a large number of files: both on your computer and in your physical archives (unless you managed to go completelypaperless).

To find your information when you need it, it is necessary you start structuring your files (digital and analog) early in the process. The worst you can do is to keep all files on your desktop, and to keep all prints on piles on your desk. Don’t pile your information, structure and file it!

Here are some ideas on how to keep your information searchable:

  • have a clear tree structure for your files and folders
  • arrange your printed papers in alphabetical order by first author
  • keep a digital archive for your papers
  • add project codes to smaller projects and keep an overview file
  • store calculations, figures and text used in a paper together for later reference
  • just dump everything in Evernote

Useful Tools To Manage a Large Research Project

As a scientist 2.0, you are a tech savvy researcher, ready to implement these ideas by using the right tools for it. These are your essential tools:

With these tools and ideas, planning, managing and moving forward in a project become easier, because you know where to find your information and what you need to work on to keep the entire project on track.

Posted in Mixed | Leave a Comment »

Google Cloud SQL is now Generally Available

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on February 19, 2014

Google Cloud SQL is now Generally Available
Cloud SQL
Google Cloud SQL is a fully managed MySQL service hosted on Google Cloud Platform, providing a database backbone for applications running on Google App Engine or Google Compute Engine. Cloud SQL is now Generally Available and features encryption of customer data, a 99.95% uptime SLA, and support for databases up to 500GB in size. Read more or get started
Big Data processing with the Google Cloud Storage Connector for Hadoop
Compute Engine VMs provide a fast and reliable way to run Apache Hadoop. The new Cloud Storage connector for Hadoop lets you focus on your data processing logic instead of managing a cluster and file system. Read more or get started
Google Cloud Platform provides support for HIPAA Covered Entities
To serve developers who want to build healthcare-related applications that comply with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, we’re announcing support for Business Associates Agreements. Read more or contact us
Join us on March 25th for Google Cloud Platform Live
Urs Hölzle, Senior Vice President for Technical Infrastructure, and the engineering leadership of Google Cloud Platform will be hosting a day-long developer summit. We’ll announce a number of new products, features and updates to Google Cloud Platform and showcase the investments we’re making in building the world’s best public cloud. Join us in San Francisco, New York, Seattle, or on YouTube to catch the action. Read more
Running Docker on Compute Engine
Get Programmatic Access to your Billing Data With the New Billing API
Performance advantages of the new Google Cloud Storage connector for Hadoop
Large Akka cluster on Google Compute Engine
Analyzing detailed web analytics data with Google Analytics and Google BigQuery
BigQuery, Python, Pandas and R for data science
PHP App Engine apps and file system concepts
A better way to explore and learn on Github
The Google Cloud Platform Team

Posted in Animation, Computer Network & Security, Google TEch, Installation, PARALLEL | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

Install Adminer 3.6.3 in Ubuntu 12.04 server

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on February 13, 2014

adminer-logoRilasciata in gennaio la versione 3.6.3 di Adminer una interfaccia di amministrazione per database SQL caratterizzata da pulizia ed efficacia oltre a MySQL, supporta PostgreSQL, SQLite, MS SQL, Oracle. A differenza di phpAdmin consiste in un unico file php.

adminer login postgresqladminer login postgresql

Disponibile anche Adminer-editor un interfaccia user-friendly e di facile utilizzo per editing dei dati dei database per l’utente finale. Adminer e Adminer editor dispongono di plugins e  skins.

Installare Adminer

Per installare adminer in Ubuntu 12.04 è necessario avere installato mysql-server, apache2 e php. Sono necessari anche i moduli php per i database con i quali si intende interagire. Ad esempio
per amministrare mysql dovrà essere installato il modulo php5-mysql, mentre per postgresql è necessario il modulo php5-pgadmin.

I moduli possono essere installati con

sudo apt-get install php5-mysql php5-pgsql

Creare la directory /usr/share/adminer

sudo  mkdir /usr/share/adminer
sudo  cd /usr/share/adminer

scaricare l’ultima versione di adminer

sudo wget ""

creare un link simbolico adminer.php

sudo ln -s latest.php adminer.php

Configurare apache perchè utilizzi adminer utilizzando echo e quindi riavviare apache2

echo "Alias /adminer.php /usr/share/adminer/adminer.php" > /etc/apache2/conf.d/adminer.conf

service apache2 restart

Adminer mysql

Disinstallare Adminer

Per disinstallare adminer  rimuovere la directory /adminer e il suo contenuto

sudo  rm -R /usr/share/adminer

rimuovere anche il file di configurazione apache2 e riavvare il web server

sudo rm /etc/apache2/conf.d/adminer.conf
service apache2 restart


Posted in SQL | Leave a Comment »

Install Apache2, Mysql and PHP on Ubuntu 12.04 (LAMP)

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on February 13, 2014


Install Apache2, Mysql and PHP on Ubuntu 12.04 (LAMP)

Step 0 – Install Ubuntu 12.04
Step 1 – User security, changing the root password
Step 2 – Updating and upgrade
Step 3 – Installing VIM
Step 4 – MySQL install
Step 5 – Apache2 install
Step 6 – PHP5 install
Step 7 – Testing the PHP5 install
Step 8 – PHP mods
Step 9 – phpMyAdmin install
Step 10 – Configure .htaccess
Step 11 – Log program install
Step 12 – Webmin install
Step 13 – Hosts file correction
Step 14 – SSMTP email forwarding
Step 15 – Adding a new username
Step 16 – Adding SUDO to new username
Step 17 – SSH security
Step 18 – Adding user specifically for sftp
Step 19 – Importing a premade database
Step 20 – php.ini work
Step 21 – Key authentications
Step 22 – Firewalls with IP-tables with Fail2Ban, important!
Step 23 – APC install
Step 24 – Set Cron going to backup your MySQL database

1 Preliminary Note

In this tutorial I use the hostname with the IP address These settings might differ for you, so you have to replace them where appropriate.

I’m running all the steps in this tutorial with root privileges, so make sure you’re logged in as root:

sudo su


2 Installing MySQL 5

First we install MySQL 5 like this:

apt-get install mysql-server mysql-client

You will be asked to provide a password for the MySQL root user – this password is valid for the user root@localhost as well as, so we don’t have to specify a MySQL root password manually later on:

New password for the MySQL “root” user: <– yourrootsqlpassword
Repeat password for the MySQL “root” user: <– yourrootsqlpassword


3 Installing Apache2

Apache2 is available as an Ubuntu package, therefore we can install it like this:

apt-get install apache2

Now direct your browser to, and you should see the Apache2 placeholder page (It works!):

Click to enlarge


Apache’s default document root is /var/www on Ubuntu, and the configuration file is /etc/apache2/apache2.conf. Additional configurations are stored in subdirectories of the /etc/apache2 directory such as/etc/apache2/mods-enabled (for Apache modules), /etc/apache2/sites-enabled (for virtual hosts), and /etc/apache2/conf.d.


4 Installing PHP5

We can install PHP5 and the Apache PHP5 module as follows:

apt-get install php5 libapache2-mod-php5

We must restart Apache afterwards:

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart


5 Testing PHP5 / Getting Details About Your PHP5 Installation

The document root of the default web site is /var/www. We will now create a small PHP file (info.php) in that directory and call it in a browser. The file will display lots of useful details about our PHP installation, such as the installed PHP version.

vi /var/www/info.php


Now we call that file in a browser (e.g.

Click to enlarge


As you see, PHP5 is working, and it’s working through the Apache 2.0 Handler, as shown in the Server API line. If you scroll further down, you will see all modules that are already enabled in PHP5. MySQL is not listed there which means we don’t have MySQL support in PHP5 yet.


6 Getting MySQL Support In PHP5

To get MySQL support in PHP, we can install the php5-mysql package. It’s a good idea to install some other PHP5 modules as well as you might need them for your applications. You can search for available PHP5 modules like this:

apt-cache search php5

Pick the ones you need and install them like this:

apt-get install php5-mysql php5-curl php5-gd php5-intl php-pear php5-imagick php5-imap php5-mcrypt php5-memcache php5-ming php5-ps php5-pspell php5-recode php5-snmp php5-sqlite php5-tidy php5-xmlrpc php5-xsl

Now restart Apache2:

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Now reload in your browser and scroll down to the modules section again. You should now find lots of new modules there, including the MySQL module:

Click to enlarge



7 phpMyAdmin

phpMyAdmin is a web interface through which you can manage your MySQL databases. It’s a good idea to install it:

apt-get install phpmyadmin

You will see the following questions:

Web server to reconfigure automatically: <– apache2
Configure database for phpmyadmin with dbconfig-common? <– No

Afterwards, you can access phpMyAdmin under

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Android App Emulator for Windows

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on February 11, 2014

An emulator is used to test an application in a simulated environment to see if it can perform really well in the actual device. Besides testing out an app, it also lets you try out new applications launched on Google Play.

Third-party Android emulators run the latest games or allow budding developers to experiment with their brand new app. There are quite a few applications that allow users to run latest software and games effortlessly. Here’s a rundown of some of the best app players:

1. BlueStacks

BlueStacks is one of the top emulators that allow you to try out new mobile apps on your PC. It runs old as well as new apps launched on Google Play. You can try out your own apps, but make sure it has an “.apk” extension. All you have to do is right-click on your apk file and select the app player to test it out.

BlueStacksThere was a time when BlueStacks could run only a handful of apps, but new enhancements have now turned it into a complete emulator. You can now run almost any application or game effortlessly. However, you may experience slow frame-rates while playing 3D games. The app player has a nifty search option where you can type in the app name, click on the search result and wait for the app to install completely.

The app player also lets you tweak and manage installed apps. You can change the app size (tablet, large phone or default), uninstall apps or add an onscreen keyboard. There’s also an option to sync your device with this app player for smooth app synchronization between your phone/tablet and PC.

The best part of the application player is its interface. I found it very simple and clutter-free. I could easily find my installed apps via a menu enlisting all applications horizontally. There’s also a vertical sidebar that suggests new apps for us to download. BlueStacks is still in beta mode and is available free, but it may turn into a paid app in the future.

2. Jar of Beans

Jar of Beans is a new user-developed emulator that’s doing the rounds at the moment. Developed by “UnrealManu”, the app player runs all apps and games supported by Android Jelly Bean devices. The best part of this app is that games that require hardware graphics acceleration run smoothly on this emulator.

Jar of Beans

Jar of Beans is second best to BlueStacks when it comes to emulating apps and games. It can play games on Full-screen and can automatically switch to “tablet mode” for Android tablet-supported games. There are plenty of settings which can help you customize your gameplay and app usage experience. It offers a wide range of configuration options, including different viewing modes, a virtual SD card and keyboard support. In future versions, the emulator will boast multiple resolutions and skins.

Jar of Beans can also double up as an app-testing sandbox. You can easily test your apps without requiring a real device. You can create your apk files and install it to your emulator. It has a special button that lets you to import your apk files stored on your computer. Since it allows custom settings, you can easily tweak options according to your app preferences and can even create a virtual SD card of any size you want. A must-download Android emulator for your PC!

3. AMD AppZone

AppZone is an emulator Android gamers have been waiting for! Powered by BlueStacks, this free app player is exclusively developed for players who would love to play 3D Android games on their PCs. However, users will need an AMD powered-PC to play games on this emulator.

AMD AppZone

The best part of AMD AppZone is that it can run games in full-screen. The AMD website also has select games that you can install and play on your AMD-powered emulator. Not only games, but also some of the top productivity apps and utilities are listed in the AppZone application page. Like BlueStacks, the app player allows for easy synchronization between apps on your device and computer.

AppZone can be used to try out some of the top Android games. The app player is not suitable for application testing. If you are looking for a complete mobile gaming experience on your laptop, then you should try this out.

4. YouWave

YouWave supports apps built for Android 2.3 devices and performs exactly like your phone or tablet. It can rotate the screen, play multiplayer games and has simulated memory card functionality, allowing users to save their game in the same way they would do in an actual device.

This Android app emulator for Windows has an in-built application store that lets you search for a game or software and download it to your PC. However, there are some restrictions (read: flaws) that won’t allow downloading of some apps. The app player can’t play games like Angry Birds, because of the unsupported hardware. Angry Birds have ARM native code and run on devices powered by ARM processors. YouWave does not support this, nor does it support applications that require hardware sensors.

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Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on February 11, 2014


This is the real deal. Try ignoring it, and the first thing you’ll notice is having a horrible day starting tomorrow morning, and it only gets worse from there.

AQUARIUS – Does It in the Water (January 20 to February 18)
Trustworthy. Attractive. Great kisser. One of a kind. Loves being in long-term relationships. Tries hard. Will take on any project. Proud of themselves in whatever they do. Messy and unorganized. Procrastinators. Great lovers, when they’re not sleeping. Extreme thinkers. Loves their pets usually more than their family. Can be VERY irritating to others when they try to explain or tell a story. Unpredictable. Will exceed your expectations. Not a fighter, but will knock your lights out. 2 years of bad luck if you do not share this post.

PISCES – The Partner for Life (February 19 to March 20)
Caring and kind. Smart. Likes to be the center of attention. Very organized. High appeal to opposite sex. Likes to have the last word. Good to find, but hard to keep. Passionate, wonderful lovers. Fun to be around. Too trusting at times and gets hurt easily. VERY caring. They always try to do the right thing and sometimes get the short end of the stick. They sometimes get used by others and get hurt because of their trusting. Extremely weird but in a good way. Good sense of humor!! Thoughtful. Loves to joke. Very popular. Silly, fun and sweet. Good friend to others but needs to be choosy on who they allow their friends to be. 5 years of bad luck if you do not share this post.

ARIES – The Aggressive (March 21 to April 19)
Outgoing. Lovable. Spontaneous. Not one to mess with. Funny… Excellent kisser. EXTREMELY adorable. Loves relationships, and family is very important to an Aries. Aries are known for being generous and giving. Addictive. Loud. Always has the need to be ‘Right’. Aries will argue to prove their point for hours and hours. Aries are some of the most wonderful people in the world. 16 years of bad luck if you do not share this post.

TAURUS – The Tramp (April 20 to May 20)
Aggressive. Loves being in long relationships. Likes to give a good fight. Fight for what they want. Can be annoying at times, but for the love of attention. Extremely outgoing. Loves to help people in times of need. Good kisser. Good personality. Stubborn. A caring person. They can be self-centered and if they want something they will do anything to get it. They love to sleep and can be lazy. One of a kind. Not one to mess with. Are the most attractive people on earth! 15 years of bad luck if you do not share this post.

GEMINI – The Twin (May 21 to June 20)
Nice. Love is one of a kind. Great listeners. Very good at confusing people. Lover not a fighter, but will still knock you out. Geminis will not take any crap from anyone. Geminis like to tell people what they should do and get offended easily. They are great at losing things and are forgetful. Geminis can be very sarcastic and childish at times and are very nosy. Trustworthy. Always happy. VERY Loud. Talkative. Outgoing. VERY FORGIVING. Loves to make out. Has a beautiful smile. Generous. Strong. THE MOST IRRESISTIBLE. 9 years of bad luck if you do not share this post.

CANCER – The Beauty (June 21 to July 22)
MOST AMAZING KISSER. Very high appeal. A Cancer’s love is one of a kind… Very romantic. Most caring person you will ever meet in your life. Entirely creative person, most are artists and insane, respectfully speaking. They perfected sex and do it often. Extremely random. An ultimate freak. Extremely funny and is usually the life of the party. Most Cancers will take you under their wing and into their hearts where you will remain forever. Cancers make love with a passion beyond compare. Spontaneous. Not a fighter, but will kick your ass good if it comes down to it. Someone you should hold on to! 12 years of bad luck if you do not share this post.

LEO – The Lion (July 23 to August 22)
Great talker. Attractive and passionate. Laid back. Usually happy but when unhappy tend to be grouchy and childish. A Leo’s problem becomes everyone’s problem. Most Leos are very predictable and tend to be monotonous. Knows how to have fun. Is really good at almost anything. Great kisser. Very predictable. Outgoing. Down to earth. Addictive. Attractive. Loud. Loves being in long relationships. Talkative. Not one to mess with. Rare to find. Good when found. 7 years of bad luck if you do not share this post.

VIRGO – The One that Waits (August 23 to September 22)
Dominant in relationships. Someone loves them right now. Always wants the last word. Caring. Smart. Loud. Loyal. Easy to talk to. Everything you ever wanted. Easy to please. A pushover. Loves to gamble and take chances. Needs to have the last say in everything. They think they know everything and usually do. Respectful to others but you will quickly lose their respect if you do something untrustworthy towards them and never regain respect. They do not forgive and never forget. The one and only. 7 years of bad luck if you do not share this post.

LIBRA – The Lame One (September 23 to October 22)
Nice to everyone they meet. Their love is one of a kind. Silly, funny and sweet. Have own unique appeal. Most caring person you will ever meet! However, not the kind of person you want to mess with… you might end up crying. Libras can cause as much havoc as they can prevent. Faithful friends to the end. Can hold a grudge for years. Libras are someone you want on your side. Usually great at sports and are extreme sports fanatics. Very creative. A hopeless romantic. 9 years of bad luck if you do not share this post.

SCORPIO – The Addict (October 23 to November 21)
EXTREMELY adorable. Loves to joke. Very good sense of humor. Will try almost anything once. Loves to be pampered. Energetic. Predictable. GREAT kisser. Always get what they want. Attractive. Loves being in long relationships. Talkative. Loves to party but at times to the extreme. Loves the smell and feel of money and is good at making it but just as good at spending it! Very protective over loved ones. HARD workers. Can be a good friend but if is disrespected by a friend, the friendship will end. Romantic. Caring. 4 years of bad Luck if you do not share this post.

SAGITTARIUS – The Promiscuous One (November 22 to December 21)
Spontaneous. High appeal. Rare to find. Great when found. Loves being in long relationships. So much love to give. A loner most of the time. Loses patience easily and will not take crap. If in a bad mood stay FAR away. Gets offended easily and remembers the offense forever. Loves deeply but at times will not show it, feels it is a sign of weakness. Has many fears but will not show it. VERY private person. Defends loved ones with all their abilities. Can be childish often. Not one to mess with. Very pretty. Very romantic. Nice to everyone they meet. Their Love is one of a kind. Silly, fun and sweet. Have own unique appeal. Most caring person you will ever meet! Amazing in bed!!! Not the kind of person you want to mess with- you might end up crying. 4 years of bad luck if you do not share this post.

CAPRICORN – The Passionate Lover (December 22 to January 19)
Love to bust. Nice. Sassy. Intelligent. Sexy. Grouchy at times and annoying to some. Lazy and love to take it easy, but when they find a job or something they like to do they put their all into it. Proud, understanding and sweet. Irresistible. Loves being in long relationships. Great talker. Always gets what he or she wants. Cool. Loves to win against other signs in sports, especially Gemini’s. Likes to cook but would rather go out
To eat at good restaurants. Extremely fun. Loves to joke. Smart. 24 years of bad luck if you do not share this post.

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Research Organisations in India

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on February 11, 2014

Research Organisations in India

Indian Space Research Organisation -

Sector: Space


Government of India set up Space Commission and Department of Space (DOS) in June 1972. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) under DOS executes Space programme through its establishments located in different places in India.

The prime objective of ISRO has been to develop space technology and its application to various national tasks. Since 1969, when it was set up, ISRO has established space systems like the INSAT for telecommunication, television broadcasting and meteorological services, and the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS) for resources monitoring and management. ISRO has also developed the satellite launch vehicles PSLV and GSLV to place these satellites in the required orbits.

The Department of Space (DOS) has, over the years, built up a strong research and development and technology base with necessary infrastructure and manpower for implementing the space programme.

Contact Details

Antariksh Bhavan
New BEL Road,
Bangalore 560 094

Tel: +91- 80-341 5275 & 341 5474
Fax: +91-80-341 2253

Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI) -

Sector: Electronics Engineering


CEERI Centre, Chennai, established in 1974, is one of the two regional Centres of Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani. CEERI Centre, Chennai has been concentrating on appropriate process monitoring and control instrumentation for pulp & paper, plastic film, leather and food processing industries.

The Centre is presently engaged in developing paper formation analyzer, digester house instrumentation and control system, on-line freeness tester for the control and automation of the refiners for the pulp and paper industry, process control automation system for paper converter machine, on-line fruit sorter and grader, automation of rubber roll sheller.

CEERI Centre, Chennai has over the years acquired necessary technical expertise to undertake any on-line quality control instrumentation for the web based products. Development of special type of nucleonic, opto-electronic, machine vision and infra red based sensors required for on-line or off-line sensing of physical or chemical parameters along with appropriate sophisticated systems for a complete process control solution will also form the area of focused work. The Centre has further plans to undertake quality control instrumentation for food processing in a big way.

Contact Details

CEERI Centre,
CSIR Complex
Chennai – 600 113

Tel: 91-44-22542430/22541923/22542281
Fax: 91-44-22541889/22541973

Contract Research Organisation: Hi-Tech Bio Laboratories

Sector: Biotechnology


Founded in 1994, HI TECH BIO LABORATORIES was formed as a Contract Research Organisation including extensive laboratory testing facility. Pune (India) based, privately owned by Mr.R.P.Gaikaiwari HTBL provides contract research in chemical and biotechnological process development.

They offer Contract Research in process development in organic sysnthesis-economical route optimisation, natural waste-value added technologies from natural wastes, fermentation technology, supply of Ayurvedic standards, plant & equipment designing and environmental consultancy.

Contact Details

Corporate Office Address :

Plot No.45, Mitali Apartments,
Ground Floor, Flat No.1,
Right Bhusari Colony,
Paud Road, Kothrud,
Pune – 411038.

Tel: (020) 528 5426
Telefax:(020) 528 5026

Research Centre Address:

S.No. 297,298, Plot No.6&8, Sutarwadi,
Post Paud, Gadadawane Raod,
Behind Datta Mandir,
Tasl. Mulshi, Dist.Pune -412108

Tel:(020) 292 3271/ 292 3480
Fax : (020) 292 3481

Indian Institute of Chemical Biology -

Sector: Chemical


IICB is based in Calcutta. IICB’s major strength is its basic research traditionally maintained for a long time. However, the institute has now emerged with great spirit to put effort on product-oriented research with its strong background of basic research. The direction of the Institute is therefore to be on the forefront of biomedical research in India and to achieve excellence in certain selected areas of our competence.

Conducts research in biological sciences for seeking solution to medical and biological problems faced by the country and utilize the results for biotechnological and biomedical applications. It utilizes its R&D expertise and resources for research in frontier areas for modern biology and strives to achieve an appropriate balance between long-term research of basic nature and short-term research of commercial potential.

IICB has developed a bacteriophage typing technique for identifying cholera infection, which has become widely accepted and won the recognition of WHO. Immunoassay kits have been developed for estimating testosterone, cortisol, triiodothyronine and thyroxine.

Contact Details


4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road,
Calcutta – 700 032

Tel: 733491, 734503

Department of Biotechnology -

Sector: Biotechnology


Provides support of commercial development of this field by providing grants, creating technology parks and related institutions. Lists purpose, organizational structure, programs and research centers. The department has made significant achievements in the growth and application of biotechnology in the broad areas of agriculture, health care, animal sciences, environment, and industry.

The Department of Biotechnology considers financial support for grants-in-aid to various R&D institutions and Universities for Research and Development activities in Biotechnology under categories such as Biotech Product, Process development, Technology Transfer, Biotech Facilities and Programme Support, Biotechnology for Societal Development etc.

Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology -

Sector: Meteorology


IITM is based in pune, research and development in the field of tropical meteorology. IITM has made significant contributions in the challenging areas of the Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences like Weather Forecasting, Climatology and Global Change, Hydrometeorology, Monsoon, Climate Modelling, Cloud Physics, Weather Modification, Atmospheric Chemistry, Atmospheric Electricity, Instrumentation for the observational studies, and studies relating to Land-Surface Processes.The Institute has built up importance and expertise for the study of atmospheric sciences in India and for application of knowledge as a national resource in terms of weather, climate and related atmospheric processes.

The Institute has kept a good balance in its research programmes between the application oriented and the fundamental aspects of Atmospheric Sciences. Considering the increased concern among Government and general public about a variety of environmental issues, the Institute will plan its research programmes to meet the critical national needs for providing information relating to various aspects of the atmosphere and will contribute its intellectual resources to the national and international efforts for research in the emerging thrust areas in Atmospheric Sciences.

Contact Details

Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
Dr. Homi Bhabha Road
Pune 411 008

Tel: +91-20-589-3600
Fax: +91-20-589-3825

Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research -

Sector: Atomic


Engaged in broad based multidiscipilinary programme of scientific research and advanced engineering directed towards the development of fast breeder reactor technology.

Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research [IGCAR], an establishment of the Department of Atomic Energy was set up at Kalpakkam 80 km south of Chennai, in 1971. This forms a part of the second stage of the Indian Atomic Energy programme for the effective utilization of Uranium and leading to the exploitation of the large energy potential in Thorium in the third stage. Fast Breeder Reactors are expected to play a critical role in meeting the energy security of our country in the next century.

Industrial Engineering and Operations Research -

Sector: Industrial Engg


The group contributes significantly to achieve the goals of IIT Bombay, through various activities such as offering own academic programmes.

Contact Details

Industrial Engineering & Operations Research
Indian Institute of Technology
Bombay, Powai,
Mumbai – 400 076.

Institute for Plasma Research -

Sector: Plasma Physics


The Institute for Plasma Research is a multidisciplinary center of excellence for basic and applied research in charged particle beams, plasmas, high power microwave generation, millimeter-wave electronics, advanced high energy particle accelerators, ion beam microfabrication, nonlinear dynamics (chaos) and more.

IPR researchers are also studying advanced technology for charged particle accelerators to be used in high energy physics research. One example is the gyroklystron, a high-power microwave amplifier, large numbers of which might be used to drive electron and positron accelerators to TeV energy levels. The gyroklystron is a type of microwave and millimeter-wave power tube that emits coherent radiation at the electron cyclotron frequency. It can be used advantageously for radar and communications in addition to particle acceleration.

Other areas of research at IPR include nonlinear dynamics, advanced materials processing technology, and microstructure fabrication with ion beams. Research is sponsored primarily by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, the National Science Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Contact Details



Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics

Sector: Astronomy


The Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) is an autonomus institution set up by the University Grants Commission to promote nucleation and growth of active groups in Astronomy and Astrophysics in Indian universities.

IUCAA aims at being a centre for excellence within the university sector for teaching, research and development in Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Contact Details

Post Bag 4 Ganeshkhind,
Pune – 411007.

Tel: + 91-20-5691414
Fax: + 91-20-5690760

Physical Research Laboratory -

Sector: Theoretical Physics


A leading research institute engaged in basic research in several areas of experimental and theoretical physics and earth and planetary sciences. Founded by Dr. Vikram A Sarabhai in November 1947, PRL is an autonomous research institute under the Department of Space, Government of India. PRL initiated the formation of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and thus truly served as the cradle of the Indian Space Programme.

Contact Details

Ahmedabad 380 009.

Tel : (91)-79-6302129
Fax : (91)-79-630 15 02

Tata Energy Research Institute

Sector: Energy


TERI is a non-profit, scientific and policy research organisation, working in the fields of energy, environment and a range of sustainable development issues. It is a dynamic and flexible organization with a global vision and a local focus, TERI was established in 1974. While in the initial period the focus was mainly on documentation and information dissemination activities, research activities in the fields of energy, environment, and sustainable development were initiated towards the end of 1982. The genesis of these activities lay in TERI’s firm belief that efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, large-scale adoption of renewable energy technologies, and reduction of all forms of waste would move the process of development towards the goal of sustainability.

Contact Details

Darbari Seth Block
Habitat Place
Lodhi Road
New Delhi – 110 003

Tel. (+91 11) 2468 2100 and 2468 2111
Fax: (+91 11) 2468 2144 and 2468 2145

The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research -

Sector: General


The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) was established in 1945 at the initiative of Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha. It had a modest beginning at the Kenilworth site on Peddar Road, Bombay in 1945 and later moved to the Royal Yacht Club, Apollo Bunder until the buildings at the Navy Nagar Campus in South Bombay were ready in 1962. The Institute is proud to have produced many of the finest scientists of India who have been involved in seminal research in fields ranging from Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Physics and Science Education as well as some aspects of Public Health.

The Institute has several field stations and research facilities in different parts of the country. A Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope, the largest of its kind in the world, is operational at Khodad near Narayangaon, north of Pune and a large equatorially mounted cylindrical radio telescope and a high energy cosmic ray laboratory are operational at Udhagamandalam in Tamil Nadu. High Energy Cosmic ray and Gamma Ray laboratories are operated from Pachamarhi in Madhya Pradesh. TIFR runs a National Balloon Facility in Hyderabad which is among the best in the world and has the geographical advantage of being close to the geomagnetic equator. At Gauribidanur, TIFR scientists have built an extremely sensitive balance to study the difference between gravitational and inertial mass. A Heavy Ion Low Energy Accelerator capable of accelerating particles to moderate energies for studying heavy ion atomic interactions and a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Facility to study complex molecules are also housed in TIFR. The Institute’s Dental Section has been actively involved in investigations pertaining to carcinogenic effects of tobacco.

Contact Details

Homi Bhabha Road
Mumbai 400 005

Tel: ++ 91-22-2280-4545
Fax: ++ 91-22-2280-4610, 2280-4611

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

Sector: General


Promotes the development of indigenous technologies and resources. Includes features on special projects and business areas. Technologies for the rural sector includes food and agro-based technologies building and construction technologies, drinking water, environment and sanitation, cultivation and processing of economic plants and cottage and small industries.

Contact Details

Anusandhan Bhavan
2 Rafi Marg
New Delhi – 110 001

Indian National Remote Sensing Agency -

Sector: Space


The NRSA provides an overview of space projects, including science pages and events. It is an autonomous organisation under Department of Space, Govt. of India engaged in operational remote sensing activities. The operational use of remote sensing applications is in the fields of water resources, agriculture, soil and land degradation, mineral exploration, groundwater targetting, geomorphological mapping, coastal and ocean resources monitoring, environment, ecology and forest mapping, landuse and landcover mapping and urban area studies, large scale mapping, etc.

The chief activities are satellite data and aerial data reception, data processing, data dissemination, applications for providing value added services and training.

NRSA has acquired the capability to design, develop, deploy and operationalise multi-sensor satellite based ground systems comprising of ground and application segments to meet domestic and international requirements.

NRSA has an organised training activities to train professionals, scientists as well as decision makers on Remote Sensing and GIS.

Contact Details

National Remote Sensing Agency
(Dept. of Space, Govt. of India),
Balanagar, Hyderabad – 500 037

Tel: 23879572-76
Fax: 040-23878648

Central Electro Chemical Research Institute (CECRI)

Sector: Chemical


Central Electrochemical Research Institute is one of the chain of forty national laboratories under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. (CSIR) New Delhi. Founded on 25th July 1948 at Karaikudi in Tamilnadu, it came into existence on the January 1953. During the last fifty years CECRI has been recognised as the premier institution for R&D in the field of Electrochemical Science and Technology not only in India but also in the South East Asia, with a total strength of over 600 personnel comprising scientists, engineers, technologists, skilled workers, administrative and other staff, with a combined laboratory space of 4,00,000 sq.ft. in a campus of 300 acres. There are Four extension centers for CECRI located at Chennai, Cochin, Mandapam and Tuticorin.

Major R&D programs at CECRI are in the areas of Corrosion Science and Engg., Industrial Metal Finishing, Batteries (Primary and Secondary), Electro-Metallurgy, Electropyrometallurgy, Electro chemicals (organic and inorganic), Materials Science, Electrochemical Instrumentation & Pollution Control. The programs are directed towards development of new processes of products or novel use of electrochemistry. Techniques, upgradation of the already developed technology, basic research is carried out. An excellent library, computer center, workshop, centralised characterisation and measurement laboratory lend active support.

Contact Details

District Sivganga
Karaikudi – 630 006

Tel: (+91) 4565 – 22 75 50
Fax: (+91) 4565 – 22 77 13

MANTRA – A primier Textiles Research Oragnosation of India -

Sector: Textiles


MANTRA was to be set up on similar lines as other National Textile Research Associations.

This was with a view to carry out research and development activities as well as to provide testing and technical service facilities to the man-made fibre textiles industry, in particular, and other allied industries, in general, in South Gujarat.

The idea was supported by the State Government as well as Central Government and the State Government provided land free of cost for the purpose as well as earmarked funds for the building construction and purchase of essential equipments to carry out research and testing activities.

To serve the local textile industry more effectively, MANTRA keeps close liaison with the industry around, in general, and the five leading local co-operative textile societies, in particular, viz., (a) The Surat Art Silk Cloth Manufacturers Association (SASCMA), (b) The Surat Vankar Sahkari Sangh Ltd., (c) The SASME Co-operative Society Ltd., (d) The Udhna Group of Weavers Producers Co-operative Society Ltd., (e) The South Gujarat Processors Association.

Contact Details

Man-Made Textiles Research Association
Near Textile Market, Telephone Exchange,
Ring Road, Surat – 395002
Gujarat, India.

Tel : +91 – 0261 – 623211, 637062
Tele Fax No : +91 – 0261 – 622500

Defence Research & Development Organisation

Sector: Defence


DRDO functions as wing of the Department of Defence Research and Development (DD R&D). DRDO was formed in 1958 from the amalgamation of the then already functioning Technical Development Establishment (TDEs) of the Indian Army and the Directorate of Technical Development & Production (DTDP) with the Defence Science Organisation (DSO). DRDO was then a small organisation with 10 establishments or laboratories. Over the years, it has grown multi-directionally in terms of the variety of subject disciplines, number of laboratories, achievements and stature.

Today, DRDO is a network of 51 laboratories which are deeply engaged in developing defence technologies covering various disciplines, like aeronautics, armaments, electronics, combat vehicles, engineering systems, instrumentation, missiles, advanced computing and simulation, special materials, naval systems, life sciences,training, information systems and agriculture. Presently, the Organisation is backed by over 5000 scientists and about 25,000 other scientific, technical and supporting personnel. Several major projects for the development of missiles, armaments, light combat aircrafts, radars, electronic warfare systems etc are on hand and significant achievements have already been made in several such technologies.

Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI) –

Sector: Leather


Central Leather Research Institute, India was founded on 24 April, 1948. It was a land mark decision of the country born at the mid night of 15 August 1947, to invest into leather research. In 1947, the export basket of India included mostly raw hides and skins. There remained an untapped opportunity for India in leather sector for economic development, employment generation and export earnings. The missing link was addition of technology to the manufacturing base of Indian leather sector. CLRI was founded to develop an internal strength in the country to generate, assimilate and innovate technologies for leather sector.

CLRI, is a central hub in Indian leather sector with direct roles in education, research, training, testing, designing, forecasting, planning, social empowerment and leading in science and technology relating to leather. Looking back, CLRI seems a worthwhile investment of India in a sensitive industrial segment of a Nation.

CLRI has been closely associated with many International Organisations like UNIDO; FAO; UNDP; TNO (The Netherlands); the British Leather Confederation (BLC), UK; CTC, France; CESECA, Italy; IRDLAI, Indonesia; SATRA, UK and IDRC, Canada, CSIO, Australia, University of Amsterdam.

Contact Details

Central Leather Research Institute
Adyar, Chennai – 600 020

Facilitation Centre for Industrial Plasma Technologies -

Sector: Plasma Physics


The Facilitation Centre for Industrial Plasma Technologies links the Institute for Plasma Research with the industry. The knowledge base in plasma sciences and associated technologies is exploited to generate advanced plasma based technologies for material processing and environmental remediation.

IPR is an autonomous institution under the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. It is exclusively devoted to basic research in plasma sciences and development of technological applications. The major thrust is in magnetic confinement fusion and plasma assisted material processing.

FCIPT takes up development of plasma processing technologies from concept to commercialization and promotes awareness of technology through Technology transfer, Newsletters, Campaigns and Direct marketing.

Contact Details

FCIPT GIDC Electronics Zone,
Gandhinagar – 382 044
Gujarat, INDIA.

Tel: 3230908, 3235024, 3235025,
Fax :(+91 079) 3269017

Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP)

Sector: Irrigation and Power


Promotes research and development in water resources, energy and allied disciplines.

The Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP) is an autonomous, non-official, non-governmental, Engineering/Scientific Professional Organisation of which the Central/State Government Organisations, state Water Resources Departments, State Electricity Boards, Public & Private Sector Organisations are constituent members; and Irrigation & Power Research Stations, Water and Land Management Institutes, Libraries, Consultancy firms, Mining Organisations, Engineering & Contract Organisations, Power Utilities, Project Authorities, Educational Institutions, Private Companies & Firms etc are Subscribing members.

The Board, since its inception has rendered dedicated service to the Engineering Community World over in general and of India in particular in promoting Research & Development in Water Resources. Energy and Allied Disciplines. It has a track record of dissemination of technological Information to engineering community on technical developments in India and abroad through its technological information dissemination program of conferences, symposia, seminars, workshops, Research & Development Sessions etc. and also through its technical publications which are traditionally well received in India & abroad.

Contact Details

Central Board of Irrigation & Power
Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri,
New Delhi – 110 021

Tel : 91-11-26115984
Fax : 91-11-26116347
E-mail :

Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) -

Sector: Marine


The Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute established by the Government of India under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1947 became a member of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) family in 1967. The headquarters was shifted from Mandapam Camp to Cochin in 1971.

Over the period, the Institute has grown significantly in its size, stature & research infrastructure. Now, it enjoys the status of a premier research organisation comparable to any similar institution in the developed countries.

With the fast changing marine fisheries scenario and emergence of mariculture as a viable proposition for enhancing the production, the Institute over the years has tuned its mandate in consonance with the needs of the time.

Recent Breakthroughs

  • Hatchery development of the groupers
  • Breeding and seed production of clown fish
  • Breeding of spineless cuttle fish Sepiella inermis
  • Artificial insemination in shrimps
  • Prediction of oilsardine fishery

Indian Council of Forestry Research & Education

Sector: Forrestry


The mandate of the Council is to organize, direct and manage research and education in forestry sctor. The Council is established as an autonomous society, the ICFRE Society, of which Minister of Environment and Forests is President. A 21 member Board of Governers is responsible for direction and control of the affairs of the society.

The major objectives of the Council are to undertake, aid, promote and coordinate forestry education, research and its application,to develop and maintain a National Library and information Centre for forestry and allied sciences and to act as a clearing-house for research and general information relating to Forests and Wildlife.

To develop forest extension programmes and propagate the same through mass media, audio-visual aids and extension machinery and to provide consultancy services in the field of forestry research, education and training and in allied sciencesis also part of its objectives.

Contact Details

P.O. New Forests,
DEHRADUN – 248 006

Tel 91-135-628614
Fax 91-135-628571
E-Mail :

Indian Council of Agricultural Research -

Sector: Agriculture


The ICAR is an autonomous apex national organisation registered as a society which plans, conducts and promotes research, education, training and transfer of technology for advancement of agriculture and allied sciences. The ICAR was set up on 16 July 1929 on the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Agriculture. It was re-organised in 1965, and again in 1973. Over the years it has developed a large research and training infrastructure to work on the production and other emerging problems confronted in agriculture to meet the growing demands for food, fodder, fibre and fuel. It operates through 47 Central Research Institutes, 5 National Bureaux, 12 Project Directorates, 32 National Research Centres, 77 All India Co-ordinated Research Projects, 34 State Agriculture Universities & 1 Central Agricultural University, 344 Krishi Vigyan Kendras and 8 Trainers Training Centres.

ICAR acts as a repository of information and provides consultancy on agriculture, horticulture, resource management, animal sciences, agricultural engineering, fisheries, agricultural extension, agricultural education, home science and agricultural communication. It has the mandates to co-ordinate agricultural research and development programmes and develop linkages at national and international level with related organisations to enhance the quality of life of the farming community.

Contact Details

Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Krishi Bhavan,
New Delhi-110 001

Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) -

Sector: Automotive


Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) is an organisation for research and development, homologation and certification and service of competence with various modern facilities to assist the automotive industry.

It is a non-profit co-operative industrial Research organisation formed by the Indian Automotive Industry. Affiliated to Ministry of Industry, Government of India. The institute is an autonomous organisation registered as a research association under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860.

ARAI is a Ministry of Road Transport & Highway Government of India’s authorized certification agency. Major certification activity is performed at ARAI. It helps Government of India to formulate the automotive standards as well as provide technical support. ARAI also carries out sponsored research for the automotive industry in the area of engine, emission, structural dynamics, NVH, electronics etc.

It plays a major role in sponsored R&D work for industry, development testing, mandatory/ certification testing, advanced technical projects, formulation of automotive standards and testing procedures for safety and emission, web based technical database and customer support, validation and evaluation of auto ancillary products.

Contact Details

P.O. Box No. 832


Indian Institute of Spices Research -

Sector: Agriculture


The Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR), Calicut a constituent body of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is a major Institute devoted to research on spices. In 1976, it started as a Regional Station of the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI), Kasaragod engaged in research on spices. A National Research Centre for Spices was established in 1986 with its headquarters at Calicut, Kerala by merging the erstwhile Regional Station of CPCRI at Calicut and Cardamom Research Centre at Appangala, Karnataka. Realising the importance of Spices Research in India this Research Centre was upgraded to Indian Institute of Spices Research on 1st July, 1995.

Contact Details

Indian Institute of Spices Research
Marikunnu P.O.,
Calicut – 673012
Kerala, India

Tel: 0091-495-2731346
Fax: 0091-495-2730294

Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research -

Sector: Agriculture


The Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research (IISR), Lucknow was established in 1952 by the erstwhile Indian Central Sugarcane Committee for conducting researches on fundamental and applied aspects of sugarcane culture as well as to co-ordinate the research work done on this crop in different States of the country. The Government of India took over the Institute from the Indian Central Sugarcane Committee on 1st January, 1954. On April 1, 1969, it was transferred to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi alongwith other central agricultural research institutes.

Contact Details

Rae Bareli Road,
Lucknow – 226 002
Uttar Pradesh, INDIA

Tel (EPABX): 091-522-480735/6/7
Fax: 091-522-480738

Raman Research Institute -

Sector: Physics and Astronomy


The Raman Research Institute was founded in 1948 by the Nobel laureate Sir C.V.Raman. It is now funded by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. The main activity of the institute is basic research in some selected areas of Physics and Astronomy. Related activities include development of specialized electronic instruments and chemical synthesis of liquid crystalline compounds.

Its research activities includes Astronomy and Astrophysics, Liquid Crystals, Theoretical Physics, Electronic Instrumentation, Optics.

Contact Details

C. V. Raman Avenue
Bangalore – 560 080

Tel: (80) 3610122
Fax: (80) 3610492

Fluid Control Research Institute (FCRI)

Sector: Physics


Fluid Control Research Institute (FCRI) has been, established by Govt. of India with techno-economic inputs from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The institute has grown into a full fledged quality assurance centre for the core sector industry and is on par with similar establishments in developed countries.

Fluid Control Research Institute (FCRI) provides measurement standards in Fluid Flow and related areas for the efficient operation of National and International trade. Standard artefact for measurement of fluid flow is related to basic parameters of length, mass, time and temperature. Flow measurement in all industries is a key constituent of quality, safety and efficiency and plays a critical role in custody transfer and fiscal metering of fluids. It is therefore necessary to have authentic flow reference systems.

Its R&D activities includes Cone flowmeter, Thermal mass flowmeter, Five hole probe, Development of Non-intrusive diagnostic techniques for check valves, Development of a probe for measurement of Oscillating flow.

Contact Details

Fluid Control Research Institute
(Established by Govt. of India, with UNDP assistance)
Kanjikode West – 678623
Palghat, Kerala, India.

Tel: +91 491 2566120, 2566206, 2566119
Fax: +91 491 2566326

Central Building Research Institute (CBRI)

Sector: Construction


The Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee, India, has been vested with the responsibility of generating, cultivating and promoting building science and technology in the service of the country.

Since it’s inception in 1947, the Institute has been assisting the building construction and building material industries in finding timely, appropriate and economical solutions to the problems of materials, rural and urban housing, energy conservation, efficiency, fire hazards, structural and foundation problems and disaster mitigation.

To carry out applied and basic research in all areas of building science to solve problems confronting the country in shelter planning, building materials, structures and foundations,

disaster mitigation including Fire Engineering, to develop new technologies for the promotion of building materials and systems, to disseminate the results of results of research far and wide for the good of community and to transfer the developed technologies to the industry for further commercialisation.

Contact Details

Central Building Research Institute
Roorkee – 247 667

Tel: +91-1332-72243
Fax: +91-1332-72272 / 72543

Environment Protection Training and Research Institute

Sector: Environment


Environment Protection Training & Research Institute (EPTRI) was set up as an independent registered society in 1992 by the Government of Andhra Pradesh with the assistance of the Government of India, Government of India also facilitated the bilateral assistance for technical collaboration between EPTRI and Swedish International Development Agency.

The main objective of EPTRI is to provide training, consultancy, applied research services and advocacy in the area of environment protection to industry, regulatory bodies, Government and NGOs etc.

EPTRI is a world – class body and is abreast of the wide-ranging areas of international concerns especially on Ozone depletion, climate change, integrated environmental strategies and clean development mechanisms, etc. It endeavours to sensitize environment-related functioning of communities, civil society, Government, NGOs and other stakeholders in the long-term interest of poverty alleviation through employment generation, human development and sustainable environment management.

EPTRI has earned the recognition of agencies like the World Bank, UNDP, UNEP, USAID, USEPA, ADB, GEF, Sida and others who have utilized its infrastructure facilities.

Contact Details

Environment Protection Training and Research Institute
Gachibowli, Hyderabad – 500 032

Tel: +91-40-300489, 3001241, 3001242, 3005629, 3005630
Fax: +91-40- 3000361

Central Drug Research Institute

Sector: Pharmaceutical


Central Drug Reseach Institute (CDRI) is one of the fourty laboratories under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, an autonomous registered society of the federal government. It was formally inaugurated on 17th February 1951.

CDRI is an institute dedicated to drug research. It possesses state-of-the-art facilities and infrastructure. The institute is a multi-disciplinary research laboratory with seventeen research and development divisions, nine technical services/divisions, three national facilities, two data stations and one field centre.

CDRI conducts Contract Research under three categories as Grant-in-aid, Collaborative and Sponsored projects. Over the years CDRI has been successful in establishing good business relationship with the pharma industry, evident from the marketing of several of CDRI’s products, commercialisation of its technologies and contract research agreements signed with pharma industry.

National Aids Research Institute (NARI) -

Sector: Health


National AIDS Research Institute [NARI] was established in October 1992 in Bhosari, Pune on a seven acre plot. The Institute has progressively expanded its activities in various aspects of research on HIV and AIDS through infra-structural development, capacity building & research programmes. The present infrastructure includes the Institute housed in a 28024 sq. mtr space, residential accomadation for the staff, a power plant to ensure uninterrupted power supply and an incinerator for safe disposal of bio-waste.

Ongoing research activities are in Epidemiology & Intervention studies, Clinical science,

Virology and molecular virology, Immunology, Microbiology and behavioural and social sciences

Contact Details

National AIDS Research Institute
73, G-block, MIDC,
Pune 411 026

Tel: 91-020-7121072, 91-020-7121342
Fax: 91-020-7121071

Regional Research Laboratory -

Sector: General


The Regional Research Laboratory (RRL) at Bhubaneswar was established in 1964 by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India to undertake R & D towards utilisation of natural resources with emphasis on conservation of minerals and energy through process and product development.

Areas of research includes characterisation of minerals, beneficiation of lean and complex ores and agglomeration of ore fines and concentates, pyro and hydro-metallurgical extraction of metals, preparation of alloys and recovery of metal values from wastes etc.

Contact Details

Regional Research Laboratory
(Council of Scientific & Industrial Research)
Bhubaneswar – 751 013
Orissa, India

Tel: +91-674-581126
Fax: 91-674-581637

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics -

Sector: Agriculture


ICRISAT is a non-profit, apolitical, international organization devoted to science based agricultural development. They’re one of the 16 Future Harvest Centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

ICRISAT’s new mandate is to enhance the livelihoods of poor in semi-arid farming systems through integrated genetic and natural resource management strategies. ICRISAT aims to make major food crops more productive, nutritious, and affordable to the poor; diversify utilization options for staple food crops; develop tools and techniques to manage risk and more sustainably utilize the natural resource base of semi-arid tropics systems; develop options to diversify income generation; and strengthen delivery systems to key clients. Partnership-based research for impact, gender sensitivity, capacity building and enhanced knowledge and technology flows are integral to this mandate.

ICRISAT’s research strategy is founded on six global research themes, addressed through problem-based and impact-driven regional and local projects. These projects reflect specific strategic priorities for South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Contact Details

Hyderabad – 502 324
Andhra Pradesh

Tel: +91 40 23296161 to 23296179, +91 8455 240283 and 243064
Fax: +91 40 23241239, 23296182

NBRI – National Botanical Research Institute -

Sector: Biotechnology


NBRI is the premier national plant research center for India under the umbrella of CSIR known originally as Sikander Bagh. NBRI is an internationally well-known research center in India and it focuses on both basic and applied aspects of plant sciences. While working on Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biomass Biology, Biotechnology, Conservation, Ethnopharmacology, Floriculture, Plant Physiology, Genetics & Plant Breeding, Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering, Natural Product development,etc., it caters to the need of almost every aspect of plant research in South Asian region in general and India in particular. Both basic and applied research programmes in all the above said plant sciences are dealt by NBRI scientists. The institute offers consultancy and technology on various aspects of plant sciences including information technology.

Contact Details

Director Dr. P.Pushpangadan
Tel: 2205839, 2205848
Fax: 2205839

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) -

Sector: Genetic


National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) is the nodal organization in India for exchange, quarantine, collection, conservation, evaluation and the systematic documentation of plant genetic resources.

It was established in 1976 in its present setup although the activities were initiated in 1946. It operates under Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Dept of Agricultural Research & Education, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt of India. It has developed its own network based on the principles of agro-ecological analogues. It has 11 regional station/base centres for carrying out the PGR activities in India.

Objectives of NBPGR is to plan, organize, conduct and coordinate exploration and collection of indigenous and exotic plant genetic resources and to undertake introduction, exchange and quarantine of plant genetic resources. Finally, to conduct research, undertake teaching and training, develop guidelines and create public awareness on plant genetic resources.

Contact Details

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources,
Pusa, New Delhi – 110012.

Tel: + 91 – 11 – 5783697
Fax:+ 91 – 11 – 5851495

National Brain Research Centre

Sector: Health


National Brain Research Centre has been established by the Department of Biotechnology as a national apex centre for brain research, to consolidate, network, and undertake basic research of high caliber in neuroscience and establish linkages with national/international organisations involved in neuroscience research. Thus, NBRC would not only have infrastructural facilities and a coordinated multidisciplinary team of scientists working at the frontier of neuroscience (intramural), but also to support and network the existing groups in the country (extramural). NBRC would function as a comprehensive brain research institute, which has been envisaged as a novel institute of its kind in having both intramural and extramural responsibilities.

The basic objectives of NBRC are to undertake frontline research to understand brain function in health and disease.

Contact Details

National Brain Research Centre
(Deemed University)
Near NSG Campus, Nainwal Mode,
Manesar, Haryana – 122 050

Tel.: 0124 – 2338922-26,
Fax: 0124 – 2338927

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute

Sector: Environment


The Institute was established in the year 1958, as Central Public Health Engineering Research Institute(CPHERI). The Institute was renamed in 1974 as National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) by Late Shrimati Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India and President, CSIR.

The Institute dedicates itself in the service of mankind by providing innovative and effective solutions to environmental and natural resource problems. It strives to enable individuals and organizations to achieve productive and sustainable use of natural resources on which all life and human activity depend. Highly skilled and motivated, the Institute strives for excellence in environmental science, technology and management by working hand in hand with its partners to protect environmental health and ecosystem integrity in India and around the world.

The Institute has made significant contributions in identified thrust areas of R & D, viz.Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Biotechnology, Hazardous Waste Management etc.

Contact Details

Tel: 2226071 – 2226075, 2223423, 2223424,
Fax: 0712-2222725

National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences

Sector: Health


The National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), multidisciplinary institute in the area of mental health and neurosciences, was the result of the amalgamation of the erstwhile mental hospital and the All India Institute of Mental Health on 27th December 1974.

The institute is recognized as foremost in this area in this country. Advanced programs in the area of services, training and research have been developed in the area of biological, behavioral and basic sciences in the relation to the brain-mind-behavior-axis.

Contact Details

National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences,

Tel : 91-080-6995001
Fax : 91-080-6564830

Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research -

Sector: Science


The Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research was established in 1989 by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, to commemorate the centenary (1989) of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru with the main objective of promoting scientific research at the highest level in frontier and interdisciplinary areas of science and engineering. The Centre is registered as a Society under the Karnataka Societies Registration Act and is an autonomous national institution.

As envisaged at the time of its founding, the Centre maintains close links with the Indian Institute of Science (IISC). The Centre has its main campus in Jakkur on the Bangalore – Hyderabad highway, about 11 km from the IISc campus.

Contact Details

Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,
Bangalore-560 064

Tel: 91-80-8462750 – 57 (8 lines),
Fax: 91-80-8462766.

Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute -

Sector: Engineering


Established in 1958, the the Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), Durgapur is a premier R&D Establishment in mechanical and allied engineering under the aegis of CSIR . Being the only national level research institute in this field, the institute is facilitating innovations and inventions for establishing the claims of Indian talent in International field to enable India compete globally. The Institute’s core competency now nucleates round the following thrust areas Robotics & Mechatronics, Heat Power Engineering, Farm Machinery & Post Harvest Technology etc.

Contact Details

Mahatma Gandhi Avenue,
Durgapur – 713209

Tel: (0343)546749
Fax:(0343) 546745

Central Food Technological Research Institute -

Sector: Food


Central Food Technological Research Institute came into existence on October 21, 1950 as a constituent institute of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) as its third national laboratory. Located at Mysore, a cultural city of Southern India, CFTRI prides itself as the premier organization of Scientific and Industrial Research in Food Science and Technology in this part of the world. CFTRI celebrated its golden jubilee last year. CFTRI today stands out among the largest and most diversified Food Technology laboratories in the world.

Contact Details

Mysore 570 013

Tel: +91-821-2515910/-2514760
Fax: +91-821-2517233
Email :

Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation -

Sector: Mathematics


In the late 1980′s, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) recognized the growing significance of Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation, as it became evident that modelling approaches were critical for illuminating the structure and evolution of complex systems that were invading the areas of scientific analysis and technological design. Fields like Geology and Biology, which for a long time was considered largely observational and qualitative had already begun to exploit the new possibilities, offered by Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation to grow new areas of computational geology and computational biology.

Contact Details

CSIR Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation
Bangalore 560 037

Tel: +91-80-522 3353, 522 3354, 522 7612, 522 8627
Fax: +91-80-522 0392

Central Power Research Institute (CPRI) -

Sector: Power


Central Power Research Institute (CPRI) is the power house of the Indian electrical industry. Set up in 1960 by the Government of India, it functions as a centre for applied research in electrical power engineering assisting the electrical industry in product development and quality assurance. CPRI also serves as an independent authority for testing and certification of power equipment. CPRI’s governing body includes eminent professionals from industries & utilities, prestigious academic and research institutions & the government. It employs over 300 highly qualified and experienced engineers & scientists besides other supporting staff.

Contact Details

( A Government of India Society)
New BEL Road,
Post Box No: 8066,
Bangalore 560 080

Central Plantation Crops Research Institute -

Sector: Agriculture


The CPCRI was established in 1970 by Indian Council of Agricultural Research at Kasaragod, by merging the following stations

1. Central Coconut Research Station, Kasaragod

2. Central Coconut Research Station, Kayangulam

3. Central Arecanut Research Station, Vittal

along with its five sub-stations at Palode (Kerala), Peechi (Kerala), Hirehalli (Karnataka), Mohitnagar (West Bengal) and Kahikuchi (Assam).

Adaptive research on cashew and spices was undertaken with effect from 1971 with the establishment of All India Co-ordinated Spices and Cashewnut Improvement Project.

Subsequently, the All India Co-ordinated Coconut and Arecanut Improvement Project (AICCAIP) started functioning from 1972 with its Headquarters at CPCRI, Kasaragod.

Contact Details

Central Plantation Crops Research Institute,
Kasaragod 671 124
Kerala, India

Central Fuel Research Institute (CFRI) -

Sector: Energy


Central Fuel Research Institute under the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research(CSIR), is a premier research organization of international repute devoted to R&D work – both fundamental and applied on Indian fuel resources, especially coal and lignite. Accredited with ISO 9001 Certification, the first in the CSIR chain of laboratories, the Institute, since its inception in 1946 has made significant contributions to the industrial growth of the nation through concerted research efforts towards the utilization of coal. Engaged in R&D on coal for more than five decades, CFRI has developed itself as the largest repository of knowledge base of coal science and technology in the country.

Contact Details


Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI) -

Sector: Forrestry


KFRI is a research institute which undertakes research in forestry, biodiversity, non-wood forest products, wood science etc. It is situated in the midst of the tropical forest at Peechi in Central Kerala. The Web site gives details of research projects, achievements and services, the 14 divisions plus other facilities (library and engineering wing), publications lists (Research Reports, Scientific Papers, Information Bulletins, Handbooks, and books), and upcoming conference details.

Contact Details

Peechi – 680 653
Kerala, India.

Tel: +91 – 487 – 2699037, 2699061, 2699062, 2699063, 2699365
Fax :+ 91 – 487 – 2699249
E-mail :

Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology (CCMB) -

Sector: Biotechnology


The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) is one of the constituent national laboratories of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research CSIR, the premier multidisciplinary Research & Development organisation of the Government of India. It was set up as a semi-autonomous Centre in 1977 in Hyderabad, the capital city of Andhra Pradesh, became a full-fledged national laboratory during 1981-82, and was dedicated to the nation on 26 November, 1987 by the then Prime Minister of India late Shri Rajiv Gandhi.

Their research programmes are in Genomics, Bioinformatics, Molecular Biology, Genetics and Evolution, Biochemistry and Biophysics, Cell Biology and development and Biotechnology and Biomedicine.

Contact Details

Tel: +91-40-27160222
Fax: +91-40-27160591



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List of disk cloning software

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on February 10, 2014

This is a list of utilities for performing disk cloning.

Name Developer Licensing Maintained?
DriveClone FarStone Technology Free software Yes
Acronis True Image Acronis Non-free Yes
Clonezilla Steven Shiau Free software Yes
CopyCatX SubRosaSoft Non-free Yes
dcfldd Nicholas Harbou[1] Free software Yes
dd Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, and Stuart Kemp.[2] Free software Yes
ddrescue Antonio Diaz Free software Yes
Disk Copy Apple Non-free No
EASIS Drive Cloning EASIS GmbH Non-free Yes
FSArchiver Francois Dupoux Free software Yes
Gparted Live Cd[3] GParted developers Free software Yes
Ghost Symantec Non-free No [4]
Image for Windows TeraByte Unlimited Non-free Yes
Kleo Bare Metal Backup Carroll-Net Non-free Yes
Macrium Reflect Paramount Software Non-free Yes
Mondo Rescue Hugo Rabson Free software Yes
ntfsresize Szabolcs Szakacsits Free software No [5]
partclone Thomas Tsai Free software Yes
PartImage Francois Dupoux and Franck Ladurelle Free software Yes
Partition-Saving Damien Guibouret Freeware Yes
PING SysAngel Free software Yes
RaWrite chrysocome Free software No
RaWrite2 Miguel Angel Alvarez Free software No
Redo Backup and Recovery zdprojects Free software Yes
Trinity Rescue Kit Tom Kerremans Free software Yes
UDPCast unknown Free software Yes
Name Developer Licensing Maintained?

See also[edit]

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How to Mirror a Hard Drive

Posted by Hemprasad Y. Badgujar on February 10, 2014

How to Mirror a Hard Drive

From music libraries and family photos to important documents and operating files, losing a hard drive can be a logistical and emotional nightmare. In a few simple steps, however, you can mirror a hard drive — creating a back up copy identical to your main drive. Mirroring a hard drive will protect your important files in the event of a computer virus or hardware failure.


  1. Mirror a Hard Drive Step 1.jpg

    Decide if you want to create a mirrored drive on your existing hard drive or on a separate, external drive.

  2. Mirror a Hard Drive Step 2.jpg

    Download or purchase the necessary software. There are many inexpensive software solutions that will streamline the process down to just a few clicks. Choose a software program that provides a reliable backup and disaster recovery of systems, applications, settings and personal files.

  3. Mirror a Hard Drive Step 3.jpg

    If you want to create a mirrored drive on your existing hard drive, you will first need to partition your hard drive. Right click the ‘computer’ icon on desktop and Choose “Manage”.

  4. Mirror a Hard Drive Step 4.jpg

    From Management Console, Select “Disk Management” in left pane. It will display all disks. Click appropriate disk to create partition and follow the prompts.

  5. Mirror a Hard Drive Step 5.jpg

    After creating partition format your partition. This will enable the partition for copying data. (Usually when you partition with Disk management” option, It gives you an option to format created partition automatically or to leave partition without formatting.

  6. Mirror a Hard Drive Step 6.jpg

    Load and run your mirror software. The software provides a user-friendly interface that will guide you through the installation and set-up process.

  7. Mirror a Hard Drive Step 7.jpg

    Choose the drive you want to mirror from the list of available drives. In most cases, you will want to select the C drive.

  8. Mirror a Hard Drive Step 8.jpg

    Select a location to save your mirror copy. This location will either be your newly-partitioned hard drive or an external drive.

  9. Mirror a Hard Drive Step 9.jpg

    Click the “Start” button to begin the mirroring process. Depending on the size of your files and the write speed of your hard drive, the mirroring process may take anywhere from a few minutes to several hours.

  10. 10

    Test the new drive to ensure your files are successfully copied. If you mirrored your entire drive, you can test the new drive by removing the old drive. Your computer should successfully boot up from the new drive.

Posted in Computer Hardwares, Computer Network & Security | Leave a Comment »

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